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unknown user
11-12-1998, 05:06 AM
Dear Biomech-ls,

Here is a summary of the responses i received to my inquiry regarding:
"Sensory Input for Locomotion". Thanks a lot to everybody who answered.


Christian Calame:

In our collection of treadmill papers we have several by Schillings, De
Zee, Duysens from Univ. of Nijmegen (NL) who use obstacles and observe
the stumbling. We also have a paper by Dingwell, Davis and Frazier who
use a treadmill with ground reaction force feedback for amputees. There
are a couple of papers by Dr. Dietz (now in Zürich) et al with their
paraplegics. And then there are various abstracts of people who are
using our Gaitway Instrumented Treadmill.

Check out Gaitway on our web site if you are interested in ground
reaction force measurement on a treadmill. Please contact us if you are
interested in further information.

Mit freundlichen Grüssen
-----------------------------------------------------------
Mr. Christian Calame, Product Manager Biomechanics
Kistler Instrumente AG Winterthur, P.O.Box 304,
CH-8408 Winterthur, Switzerland
Tel: +41 52 224 11 11, Fax: +41 52 224 14 14
E-Mail: cl@kistler.ch, http://www.kistler.ch/biomech
-----------------------------------------------------------

Chris Kirtley: rskirt@polyu.edu.hk

http://www.rs.polyu.edu.hk/gaitlab/refs/balance.html
http://www.rs.polyu.edu.hk/gaitlab/refs/elderly.html
http://www.rs.polyu.edu.hk/gaitlab/refs/perception.html


Jim Nibblet: nibblett@eskimo.com

The vestibular system is SO inportant in so many things.
Research that I'm working on involves the vestibular system as one
rudiment of an overall system. For those who are incomplete
paraplegics,
it turns out that vestibular dysfunction is reversible. The trick is
not to stress the patient by doing too much during the therapy. Too
much
causes stress. Just enough to (gently) stimulate the vestibular
pathways
is enough to get synaptogenesis going which leads, through
neuroplasticity to a reversal of the symptom.

For a quick overview of a few vestibular exercises known to work,
see the exercises page on the website of the Handle Institute
(www.handle.org).

Paul Sweeney: paul.c.sweeney@ul.ie

Davids, K. and Myers, C. (1990): 'The role of tacit knowledge in human
skill performance.', J Hum Movement Stud, vol. 19, pp. 273-288.

Dimitrijevic, M.R., Gracanin, F., Prevec, T. and Trontelj, J. (1968):
'Electronic Control of Paralysed Extremities', Biomed. Eng., vol. 3,
pp. 8-19.

Grillner, S. (1975): 'Locomotion in vertebrates: central mechanisms and
reflex interaction', Physiol. Rev., vol. 55, pp. 247-304.

Grillner, S. and Rossignol, S. (1978): 'On the initiation of the swing
phase of locomotion in chronic spinal cats', Brain Res., vol. 146, pp.
269-277.

Levine, W.S. and Loeb G.E. (1992): "The neural control of movement",
IEEE Control Systems Magazine, Vol. 12, No. 6, pp. 38-47.

Muybridge, e. (1955): 'The Human Figure in Motion - 196 plates with over
700 images from the Muybridge Collection', Intro. and Table of Contents
by Robert Taft, Dover Publishing Company, New York.

Shefchyk, S.J. and Jordan, L.M. (1985): 'Excitatory and inhibitory
postsynaptic potentials in a-motorneurons produced during fictive
locomotion by stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region', J.
Neurophysiol., vol. 53, pp. 1345-1355.

Tomovic, R., Anastasijevic, R., Vuco, J. and Tepavac, D. (1990): 'The
study of locomotion by finite state models', Biol. Cybern., vol. 63,
pp. 271-276.

and the most informative of these, I found, were:

Pearson, K.G. (1976): 'The control of walking', Sci. Amer., vol. 235,
pp. 72-86.

Prochazka, A.(1993).: 'Comparison of Natural and Artificial Control of
Movement', IEEE Trans. On Rehab. Eng., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 7-17.


Derek Kamper: d-kamper@nwu.edu

Dr. Kuo has done a lot of modeling of balance and I think
he has added sensory feedback to the model. Below is a
citation of an experimental paper he just published regarding
the effects of sensation on balance.
Good luck!

Exp Brain Res 1998 Sep;122(2):185-95

Effect of altered sensory conditions on multivariate descriptors of
human postural sway.

Kuo AD, Speers RA, Peterka RJ, Horak FB

Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, University
of
Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109-2125,
USA. artkuo@umich.edu

[Medline record in process]

Multivariate descriptors of sway were used to test whether altered
sensory
conditions result not only in changes in
amount of sway but also in postural coordination. Eigenvalues and
directions of eigenvectors of the covariance of
shnk and hip angles were used as a set of multivariate descriptors.
These
quantities were measured in 14 healthy
adult subjects performing the Sensory Organization test, which disrupts
visual and somatosensory information used
for spatial orientation. Multivariate analysis of variance and
discriminant
analysis showed that resulting sway changes
were at least bivariate in character, with visual and somatosensory
conditions producing distinct changes in postural
coordination. The most significant changes were found when somatosensory
information was disrupted by
sway-referencing of the support surface (P = 3.2 x 10(-10)). The
resulting
covariance measurements showed that
subjects not only swayed more but also used increased hip motion
analogous
to the hip strategy. Disruption of
vision, by either closing the eyes or sway-referencing the visual
surround,
also resulted in altered sway (P = 1.7 x
10(-10)), with proportionately more motion of the center of mass than
with
platform sway-referencing. As shown by
discriminant analysis, an optimal univariate measure could explain at
most
90% of the behavior due to altered
sensory conditions. The remaining 10%, while smaller, are highly
significant changes in posture control that depend
on sensory conditions. The results imply that normal postural
coordination
of the trunk and legs requires both
somatosensory and visual information and that each sensory modality
makes a
unique contribution to posture
control. Descending postural commands are multivariate in nature, and
the
motion at each joint is affected uniquely
by input from multiple sensors.

wolfhag: wolfhag@datacomm.ch

hear are some nice summaries dealing with sensory input for locomotion,
which helped us to become clear with this interesting topic.
We used further references dealing with more "practical" problems with
neurological patients on a treadmill in :"Physiotherapie" (CH) (in
press).
1.) Dietz V: Human neuronal control of automatic functional movements:
interaction between central programs and afferent input; Physiol Rev
(United States) Jan 1992, 72(1) p33-69
2.)Armstrong DM; The supraspinal control of mammalian
locomotion. (J Physiol (Lond), 1988 Nov)
3.)Massion J; Movement, posture and equilibrium: interaction and
coordination. (Prog Neurobiol, 1992)
Good luck for your work
D. Marks, Dept. of Physiotherapy HUMAINE Klinik Zihlschlacht CH 8588
Zihlschlacht


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Matthias

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*** Matthias Schablowski ***
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*** Abt. Forschung 2: Laufbandlokomotion ***
*** Schlierbacher Landstraße 200a ***
*** 69118 Heidelberg ***
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*** Tel: ++49-6221-969284 ***
*** Fax: ++49-6221-969234 ***
*** Email: Matthias.Schablowski@ok.uni-heidelberg.de ***
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