View Full Version : Summary treadmill vs. overground

unknown user
11-26-1998, 06:43 AM
Dear Biomech-list members,
First of all I will thank to the people sending such helpfull informations.
Special thanks to Christian Calame from KISTLER Instruments, Switzerland,
for the literature support and special thanks to Hans Savelberg, Maastricht
University, for the papers.

The question:

>Dear Biomch-list members,
>I want to measure the differences between treadmill and overground walking
with >the 3-D Motion Analysis System from ZEBRIS.
>Study design:
>- Differences in general gait paramter (step length/width, stance/swing
phase, >stide length, etc.)
>- Kinematic analysis of the lower extremities and pelvis.
>- Adaptation during treadmill walking
>- Differences between unimpaired persons and ACL-deficient, disc herniated
and ankle impaired >people.

>Has anybody measured kinetic, kinematic and EMG differences in this special
>If anybody has additional ideas, please let me know. I'll send a summary of
the received informations.

Thanks in advance Frank Mueller

* Frank Mueller *
* Movement Therapist *
* Ladenburger Str.80 *
* 69120 Heidelberg *
* Germany *
* Phone: +49 6221-475388 *
* e-mail: Frank.Mueller@urz.uni-heidelberg.de *
* *

The answers:

Dear Frank,

Not really much help to you, I would guess, but I recently did a
treadmill lab for my sports students:


I did calculate segment energies and powers but no joint kinetics, I'm
afraid. I tried putting the treadmill on a force plate (which will work
for running, since there is no double support), but wasn't very
impressed with the results. Our plates are AMTI - I think Kistler would
work better as preloading doesn't affect piezo-electric load cells.

I presume you have seen At Hof's paper J. EMG & Kin. 2 (4): 203-216?

Dr. Chris Kirtley MD PhD
Dept. of Rehabilitation Sciences
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Hong Kong
Special Administrative Region of The People's Republic of China

Tel: +852 2766 4830 Fax: 2330 8656
Home: http://www.polyu.edu.hk/~rs/kirt/index.htm
PolyU Gait Lab: http://www.rs.polyu.edu.hk/gaitlab

Clinical Gait Analysis: http://www.polyu.edu.hk/cga
Send subscribe/unsubscribe to listproc@info.curtin.edu.au
Dear Mr. Mueller,

>From a survey I allready conducted, I have found no complete study about
treadmill vs. overground locomotion.

Such a comparison seems to be very complex to establish: Mathematically,
there is no
difference between treadmill and overground walking; In fact, each of the
points plays a non negligible role:

- quality of the treadmill (constant speed over heel contact for example),
- determination of the "comfortable" speed
- habituation mode
- psychological effect
- proprioception (vibrations of the treadmill on the feet)

Here are some references, which can help to design the study:

Dufek J., Bates B.T.
Plantar pressure differences between overground and treadmill walking.
Am. Alliance of Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance Conf.
1988 ? ? New Orleans

Winter D.A.
Calculation and interpretation of mechanical energy of movement.
Ex. Sp. Sc. Rev. or Br. Sp. Sc. Rev.
1978 6 183-201

Wall J.C., Charteris J.
The process of habituation to treadmill walking at different velocities.
1980 23 425-435

Wall J.C., Charteris J.
A kinematic study of long-term habituation of treadmill walking.
1982 24 531-542

Pearce M.E., Cunningham D.A., Donner A.P., Rechnitzer P.A., et al.
Energy cost of treadmill and floor walking at self-selected paces.
European Journal of Applied Physiology
1983 52 115-119

Charteris J., Taves C.
The process of habituation to treadmill walking : a kinematic analysis.
J. Percept. Mot. Skills
1978 47 659-666

Parker G.H.
Locomotor and spacial differencies between overground and treadmill walking.
M.Sc. Thesis
1979 Trent University

Van-Ingen-Schenau G.J.
Some fundamental aspects of the biomechanics of over-ground versus
treadmill locomotion.
Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.
1980 12.4 257-261

Molen N.H., Rozendal R.H.
Some factors of human gait.
Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wettenschappen
1966 Mar 69 522-527

Whittle M.W.
Kinematics of treadmill walking.
Proceedings of the Special Conference of the CSB : Human Locomotion I
1980 Oct 1 30-31
Canadian Society for Biomechanics (CSB), London, Ontario, Canada.

Wall J.C, Charteris J.
A kinematic study of the long-term process of habituation to treadmill walking.
Proceedings of the Special Conference of the CSB : Human Locomotion I
1980 Oct 1 32-33
Canadian Society for Biomechanics (CSB) London, Ontario, Canada.

Alton F., Baldey L., Caplan S., Morrissey M.C.
A kinematic comparison of overground and treadmill walking.
Clinical Biomechanics
1998 Jul 13.6 434-440

Barrey E., Galloux P., Valette J.P., Auvinet B., Wolter R.
Determination of the optimal treadmill slope for reproducing the same cardiac
response in saddle horses as overground exercise conditions.
Vet. Rec.
1993 Aug 133.8 183-185

Best regards,

E. Cordier

__________________________________________________ _____________________

(Dr.) Emmanuel CORDIER - Head of the 'Foot & Ankle Group'

Institut fuer Experimentelle Chirurgie der Universitaet Ulm.
Abteilung Unfallchirurgische Forschung und Biomechanik.

Helmholtzstrasse 14,

Phone : +49 (0)731 . 50 . 22908 or +49 (0)731 . 50 . 23481

Fax : +49 (0)731 . 50 . 23498

Email : emmanuel.cordier@medizin.uni-ulm.de

WWW : http://lyra.medizin.uni-ulm.de

__________________________________________________ _____________________

Dear Mr. Mueller

Via regular mail we will send you several articles on treadmill versus
overground locomotion with a particular focus on ground reaction forces.
We have done some research on treadmill gait analysis when we developed
the Gaitway Instrumented Treadmill which contains force plates for
ground reaction force measurement.

Best Regards
Christian Calame
Mr. Christian Calame, Product Manager Biomechanics
Kistler Instrumente AG Winterthur, P.O.Box 304,
CH-8408 Winterthur, Switzerland
Tel: +41 52 224 11 11, Fax: +41 52 224 14 14
E-Mail: cl@kistler.ch, http://www.kistler.ch/biomech

Dear colleague,
It may interest you what has been done in Nijmegen. Look at Jacques
Duysens, j.duysens@mbfys.kun.nl,
for instance in Gait & Posture 7 (1998) 131-141, and 251-263.
Greetings, Hans Vos.
================================================== =====================
Dr. J.E. Vos | e-mail: j.e.vos@med.rug.nl
Groningen University | s-mail: Bloemsingel 10
Department of Medical Physiology | 9712 KZ Groningen
| The Netherlands
| phone : +31 50 3613534
| fax : +31 50 3632751
================================================== =====================

Dear Frank,

We did some work on comparing overground and treadmill locomotion in both
horses and man. I sent you by mail a copy of a paper that recently appeared
in Gait and Posture vol. 7, 1998 p26-34 [human], and a paper that has been
published in Veterinary Quarterly, vol 16 suppl 2, 1994, p. s87-s90
[equine]. Both papers contain an extended list of references in literature
on this topic.

Hans H.C.M. Savelberg Ph.D.
Department of Human Movement Sciences
Faculty of Health Sciences
Maastricht University
P.O.box 616
The Netherlands
phone: +31.43.388.1392
fax: +31.43.367.0972
email: hans.savelberg@bw.unimaas.nl

Dr. Mueller,
I collected a few articles on this topic a while ago, here are two of the
better ones.

AU - Murray MP
AU - Spurr GB
AU - Sepic SB
AU - Gardner GM
AU - Mollinger LA
TI - Treadmill vs. floor walking: kinematics, electromyogram, and heart rate.
DP - 1985 Jul
IS - 8750-7587
TA - J Appl Physiol
PG - 87-91
AB - To identify the degree of difference between treadmill and floor
walking, kinematic, electromyographic (EMG), and heart rate
measurements were recorded in seven normal female subjects during
walking at three speeds on the treadmill and on the floor. During
treadmill walking, subjects tended to use a faster cadence and shorter
stride length than during floor walking. In addition the displacements
of the head, hip, and ankle in the sagittal plane showed statistically
significant differences between floor and treadmill walking. Average
EMG activity was usually greater on the treadmill than on the floor;
however, this difference was only significant for the quadriceps. Heart
rate was significantly higher during fast treadmill walking than floor
walking. In general, treadmill walking was not found to differ markedly
from floor walking in kinematic measurements or EMG patterns.
SO - J Appl Physiol 1985 Jul;59(1):87-91

Ergonomics 1986 May;29(5):665-676
Treadmill versus walkway locomotion in humans: an EMG study.
Arsenault AB, Winter DA, Marteniuk RG

************************************************** ***********
Gordon Chalmers, Ph.D.
Dept. of Physical Education, Health and Recreation
Western Washington University, MS-9067
Bellingham WA

Phone: (360) 650-3113
FAX: (360) 650-7447

Check: Blaszczky and Loeb (1993) Physiology and Behavior, vol.
53:501-507; and Barrey et al. (1993) Acta Anatomica vol. 146:90-94
(and various references therein).

Susan Larson

Dept. of Anatomical Sciences
University at Stony Brook
Stony Brook, NY 11794-8081
ph: (516) 444-3115
Email SLarson@mail.som.sunysb.edu

If you're going to do this, why not also measure plantar forces? Contact
Novel GmbH in Muenchen about using the pedar in-shoe pressure measurement
system. I think Dr. Axel Kalpen of Novel has done work on treadmills.

Good luck!

-- Jeff

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