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bfinlay47
12-21-1998, 09:42 AM
Some additional references to John Costi's query on embalming. Excuse the poor
formatting of the Notes on some items as they were taken "roughly" from my
Reference Manager.

1. CAROTHERS, C.O.; SMITH, F.C.; and CALABRISI, P.: The elasticity and strength
of some long bones of the human body: Project NM 001 056.02.13, 6 October 1949.
Bethesda, Naval Medical Research Institute, 1949.
Reference ID: 2409
Reprint: In File
Keywords: Bone/Femur/Mechanical properties/Tibia/Human/Modulus of
Elasticity/Compression/Tension/Density/Ultimate compressive strength/Ultimate
tensile strength/Rat/Animal/Embalming/Helical
fracture/Fracture/Torsion/Review/Galileo/Roux/Milch/History/Brittle
Notes: * U.S. Navy, Naval Medical Research Institute, Information Services
Division, Bethesda, MD 20814-5055, USA. * Good historical review. * Twenty-three
compression tests were made on specimens machined from the the shafts of 14
femurs, 8 tibias and 1 fibula removed from embalmed, dissecting-room cadavers.
Average compressive strength of 19 of these specimens was 25,400 psi (176 MPa),
and the average modulus in compression for 22 of these specimens was
27,300,000 psi (18.9 GPa). Average specific gravity of the specimens was
1.967. Eleven tensile tests made on specimens machined from 10 femurs gave an
average tensile strength for the bone of 22,000 psi (152 MPa). * Compression
tests made on five whole femurs in which the direction of the applied load was
approximately the same as that applied to the femur in the erect standing
position gave an average compression of these bones of 1,990 pounds (8.86
kN). All the femurs but one failed by a trasverse crack through the neck.
Four whole femurs were tested in torsion and gave an average maximum torsional
strength of 449 lb./in. (50.7 Nm). All these femurs failed by a combination of
spiraling and longitudinal splitting of the shaft. The spiral type of
fracture, which Rixford (1913) stressed as typical of axial torsion, is common
of a brittle material. * EMBALMING: The femurs of 12 young male albino rats, 6
of them embalmed were tested in bending to determine the effects of embalming
on bone strength. It was found that embalming for about 6 weeks increased the
strength of rat femurs from 6 to 116%. The embalming solution involved equal
amounts of: 95% alcohol; chemically pure glycerin; and 10% formalin. * An
excellent historical review of the mechanical testing of bone is presented. It
includes comments on Galileo Galilei (1638), Roux (1885) and Milch (1940).
Roux studied a parafin-coated rubber model of the femur, while Milch studied
a two-dimensional photoelastic model of the femur.

2. CALABRISI, P. and SMITH, F.C.: The effects of embalming on the compressive
strength of a few specimens of compact human bone: Memorandum Report 51-2, NM 000
018.07.02, 26 February 1951. Bethesda, Naval Medical Research Institute, 1951.
Reference ID: 2240
Reprint: In File
Keywords: Bone/Cortical/Embalming/Compressive strength/Human/Femur/Tibia
Notes: * Naval Medical Research Institute, National Naval Medical Center,
Bethesda, Maryland; and National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C. * 26th
February 1951. * Compressive tests were made on seven pairs of specimens, each
machined from the middle third of each of seven human femurs and tibias. One
specimen in each pair was tested shortly after dissection of the bones and the
remaining seven specimens were tested after embalming in equal volumes of 95
per cent alcohol, 10 per cent formalin, and chemically pure glycerine for a
period of about seven weeks. The tests showed that such embalming reduced
the compressive strength of the bone about 13 per cent (SD.18.1%). This change
was not statistically different (p>0.12). The results of compressive tests
made on seven very small cylindrical specimens machined from the cortex of the
middle third of the shaft of a human tibia indicated that such small
specimens might be useful in the determination of bone strength. These tests
are described in the appendix to this report. * 95 per cent alcohol * chemically
pure glycerine * 10 per cent formalin

3. EVANS, F.G.: The tensile, compressive and shearing strength of bone. In
Stress and strain in bones, pp. 176-202. Edited by O. Glasser. Springfield,
Illinois, Charles C. Thomas, 1957.
Reference ID: 3742
Reprint: In File
Keywords: Tensile/Strength/Bone/Stress/Strain/bones/Compact/Compact
bone/Results/Axis/Collagen/collagen
fibers/fiber/Compression/Tension/Shear/Drying/Tensile strength/Compressive
strength/Heating/direction/Embalming/Human/Mammals/Man/Dry/Straight/Lines/Failure/Wet/Elongation/Energy/capacity/References/fibers

Notes: * NOTE: References are on pages 229-237. * Studies of the strength
characteristics of compact bone give the following results. Compact bone, when
loaded parallel with the long axis of the bone or the collagen fibers, is
strongest in compression, intermediate in tension, and weakest in shear.
Drying increases its compressive and tensile strength but reduces its shearing
strength. Its tensile and compressive strength are decreased by heating. The
compressive strength is greater when loaded parallel with the long axis of the
bone or the direction of its fibers than when loaded perpendicular to them.
Embalming tends to reduce the tensile and compressive strength of compact
bone. The average ultimate tensile and compressive strength of human compacta
is similar to that of other mammals. * The compressive strength of spongy bone
is considerably less than that of compact bone and is approximately similar in
man and other mammals. The tensile and shearing strength of spongy bone have
not been determined. * The stress-strain curve for dry compact bone under tension
is approximately a straight line to failure but in wet bone the curve
deviates from a straight line as the failure point is approached. The latter
is also true for the stress-strain curve of wet compact bone under
compression. The per cent elongation or strain in wet and dry compact bone
under tension is directly proportional to its energy absorbing capacity.
However, wet bone has a greater energy absorbing capacity than has dry bone.

4. EVANS, F.G.: Stress and strain in bones. Springfield, Charles C. Thomas,
1957.
Reference ID: 432
Reprint: In File
Keywords: Bone/Strain/Stress/Mechanical
properties/References/Cortical/Cancellous/Anisotropy/Embalming/Tensile/Compressive
strength/Strength/Compact/Compact
bone/UWO/Introduction/bones/Mathematical/Analysis/Models/Skull/Deformation/Fracture/Dynamic/Dynamic
loading/Loading/Static/Static loading/Split lines/Distribution/long
bones/Results/Measurement/Extensometer/Stresscoat/Lacquer/Pelvis/vertebral
column/Column/Bone Architecture/Architecture/Effect/Bone
Healing/Healing/Growth/Compressive stress/Bone
growth/Development/Osteogenesis/Theory/Breaking
strength/Diet/Hormones/Torsion/Bending/Fatigue/Fatigue strength/Bending
strength/indexes
Notes: * RM 432 contains pages 176-202 (Chapter 14) and 229-237 (References). *
UWO Library Call Number: QP88.2.E8 (TAYSTK). * Evans reviewed two articles on
embalming and concluded in his Summary (pp 201-202) "Embalming tends to reduce
the tensile and compressive strength of compact bone": - Calabrisi and Smith
(1955) - RM 2240. - Carothers, Smith and Calibrisi (1949) - RM 2409. CONTENTS
PREFACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii 1.
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. METHODS OF
STUDYING STRESS AND STRAIN IN BONES . . . . 9 3. MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF
STRESS AND STRAIN IN BONES . . 16 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 25 4. STRESS-STRAIN STUDIES WITH MODELS OF BONES . . . . . .
26 Summary (RM #3744) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 5. STRESS
AND STRAIN IN SKULL DEFORMATION AND FRACTURE . . 34 (RM #3745)
Dynamic Loading Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Static Loading
Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Split-line Studies . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 51 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 53 6. STRESS-STRAIN DISTRIBUTION IN LONG BONES (RM #3746) . .
54 Results With the Colophonium Method . . . . . . . . 54
Results With the Stressocat Method . . . . . . . . . 60 Results With
Electric Strain Gages . . . . . . . . . 71 Summary . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . 72 7. THE MAGNITUDE OF STRESS AND STRAIN IN LONG
BONES . . . 73 (RM #3747) Measurements With Extensometers . .
. . . . . . . 73 Measurements With Stresscoat Lacquer . . . . . . . .
80 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 8. THE
RELATION OF STRESS AND STRAIN TO FRACTURE OF LONG BONES (RM #3748) . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 90 9. STRESS AND STRAIN IN THE PELVIS, MANDIBLE AND
VERTEBRAL COLUMN (RM # 3743) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
92 The Pelvis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 The
Mandible . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 The Vertebral Column
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . 110 10. THE ROLE OF STRESS AND STRAIN IN BONE ARCHITECTURE . .
111 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 11. THE
EFFECT OF STRESS ON BONE HEALING AND GROWTH . . . . 130 Compressive
Stress in Bone Healing . . . . . . . . . 130 Compressive Stress in Bone
Growth . . . . . . . . . 140 Tensile Stress in Bone Growth . . . . . .
. . . . 144 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
12. STRESS AND STRAIN DURING EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT . . . . 147 Effect
of Stress in Embryonic Osteogenesis . . . . . 147 Theories on the
Influence of Stress in Osteogenesis. 155 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 158 13. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE BREAKING STRENGTH OF BONES
. 160 The Influence of Diet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
The Influence of Hormones . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 The Effect of
Disuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 The Influence of Healing . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 172 The Effect of Fluorosis . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 172 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 14.
THE TENSILE, COMPRESSIVE AND SHEARING STRENGTH OF BONE (RM #3742) . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Tensile Stress and Strain . . . . . .
. . . . . . 177 Compressive Stress and Strain of Compact Bone . . .
192 Compressive Strength of Spongy Bone . . . . . . . . 197
Shearing Strength of Bone . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Summary . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 15. TORSION, BENDING AND FATIGUE
STRENGTH OF BONE . . . . . 203 Torsion Strength of Bone . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 203 Bending Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
205 Fatigue Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 REFERENCES . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 GLOSSARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 239 INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 241

5. MCELHANEY, J.; FOGLE, J.; BYARS, E.; and WEAVER, G.: Effect of embalming on
the mechanical properties of beef bone. J.Appl.Physiol., 19: 1234-1236, 1964.
Reference ID: 974
Reprint: In File
Keywords: Bone/Embalming/Cow/Cortical/Femur/Ultimate compressive
strength/Ultimate tensile strength/Peak strain/Modulus of Elasticity/Strain rate
Notes: * Ultimate Compressive strength decreased 12%. * Ultimate tensile strengh,
peak strain and modulus of elasticity reduced very slightly. * Strain rate:
0.05 ins/min (ie 1 inch gauge-length was used). * E(tension): 1.3% reduction with
embalming. * E(compression): 6.2% reduction with embalmimg.

6. EVANS, F.G.: Studies on the anatomy and function of bone and joints. Berlin,
Springer-Verlag, 1965.
Reference ID: 1847
Reprint: In File
Keywords: Bone/Joints/Embalming/Spine/Human/Animal/Electron
microscopy/Tendon/Ligament/Articular cartilage/Hip/Force/Histology/Forensic
medicine/Impact/Osteon/Microwave extensimeter/Fibula/Femur/Compact
Notes: * Natural Sciences Library, UWO: WE100.E92s, 1965. pp 1-16 Electron
microscopy of normal synovial membrane: Davies,DV & Palfrey,AJ. pp
17-39 Biomechanics and functional adaptation of tendons and joint
ligaments: Viidik,A. pp 40-51 Dynamic considerations in load bearing bones
with special reference to osteosynthesis and articular
cartilage: Zarek,J.M. pp 52-68 Intravital measurement of forces acting on the
hip: Rydell,N. pp 69-80 The ergonomic aspects of articular
mechanics: MacConaill,M.A. pp 81-92 A longitudinal vital staining
method for the study of apposition in bone: Baer,M.J. & Ackerman,J.L.
pp 93-112 An evaluation of the use of bone histology in forensic
medicine and anthropology: Enlow,D.H. pp 113-120 Evaluation of skeletal impacts
of human cadavers: Lissner,H.R. & Roberts,V.L. pp 121-140 The tensile
properties of single osteons studied using a microwave extensimeter:
Ascenzi,A., Bonucci,E. & Checcucci,A. pp 141-1?? Physical and
histological differences between human fibular and femoral compact
bone: Evans,F.G. & Bang,S.

7. LISSNER, H.R. and ROBERTS, V.L.: Evaluation of skeletal impacts of human
cadavers. In Studies on the anatomy and function of bone and joints, pp. 113-120.
Edited by F.G. Evans. Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 1965.
Reference ID: 1846
Reprint: In File
Keywords: Human/Bone/Joints/Impact/Dog/Animal/Spine/Embalming/Strain rate
Notes: * Natural Sciences Library, UWO: WE100.E92s, 1965. * At high strain-rates,
the mechanical response of spinous processes were both strain-rate-dependent
and dependent upon whether the bone had been embalmed. * At low strain-rates,
the response was independent of whether the bone was fresh or embalmed.

8. MELVIN, J.W.; STALNAKER, R.L.; ALEM, N.M.; BENSON, J.B.; and MOHAN, D.:
Impact response and tolerance of the lower extremities, Paper #751159. In
Nineteenth Stapp car crash conference, P-62, pp. 543-559. AnonymousWarrendale,
Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc, 1965.
Reference ID: 418
Reprint: In File
Keywords: Impact/Leg/Thigh/Femur/Tibia/Embalming/Fracture/Patella/Strain
gauge/Rosette/Uniaxial/Knee/Human/Car/Crash/Conference/Paper/Embalmed/bones/References/Results/Lower
extremity/Load/Injury/Criteria/Evaluation/Axial/Limits/Review/Pelvis/Work/Fracture
toughness/Toughness/Bone/Model/Load bearing/Tolerance
Notes: * Pub. SAE, 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15906. * The
fracture-pattern produced in the femur and patella was much less comminuted
than those shown by Powell et al (18th Stapp Car Crash Conference, 1974, SAE
Paper #741190) for embalmed bones - See Reference 384 in Files. * The test
results indicate that the unembalmed sketal system of the lower extremities is
capable of carrying significantly greater loads than those determined in tests
with embalmed subjects. * The only injury criteria presently (1975) applied to
the lower extremities in occupant-protection evaluation is the 1700 lb (7560
N) maximum axial femur-force limit level set forth in FMVSS 208. * Review of
fracture of femur, patella and pelvis of the work by Patrick et al (9th Stapp
Car Crash Conference, 1966) and Powell et al, 1974 (Reference 384 in my Files).
* The fracture toughness of embalmed bone may be much lower than that of
embalmed bone and thus embalmed bone may not be a good model of the living
human femur for purposes of determining load-bearing tolerance.

9. SEDLIN, E.D.: A rheologic model for cortical bone: A study of the physical
properties of human femoral samples. Acta Orthop.Scand., Suppl.83: 1-77, 1965.
Reference ID: 1842
Reprint: In File
Keywords: Thesis/Bone/Femur/Cortical/Modulus of Elasticity/Temperature/Air
drying/Freezing/Size/Bending/Tension/Compression/Strain rate/Dumb
bell/Human/Formalin/Embalming
Notes: Chapter 3: Some factors that effect the physical properties of bone.(pp
20-44). Modulus of elasticity: 1) 10 tension specimens from one subject. 2) 2 by
2 by 20 long waisted section. 3) 2 mm/min. to 8-9 kg (Equivalent to 2-2.3
kgf/mm˛). 4) 10% formalin for 3 weeks. 5) E(fresh) 400±54 kgf/mm˛ (3.92 GPa)
0.10>pp