View Full Version : Summary : Body position for off-road cycling

Belluye Nicolas
02-15-1999, 06:16 PM
Hello biomch-lers,
I give back the summary of replies for my question on body position for
off road cycling. Thanks to all who have tried to help me.
Unfortunately, few responses concern directly off road and I have all
ready done a bibliography for road cycling.
But, if somebody want help on road cycling. Il will be a pleasure.

Ian Rogers :

Broker J.P., R.J. 1994. Gregor, Mechanical energy management in
cycling:source relations and energy expenditure. Medicine and Science in
Sports andExercise. Vol. 26, No.1, pp 64 - 74

Carnevale T.J., Gaesser G.A. 1991. Effects of pedalling speed on the
power-duration relationship for high-intensity exercise. Med. Sci.
SportsExerc. Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 242-246.

Coyle E.F. Feltner M.E., et al Physiological and biomechanical factors
associated with elite endurance cycling performance. Vol. 23, No.1, pp
93 -107 1991

Swain DP, 1993. The influence of body mass in endurance cycling. Med.
Sci.Sports Exerc. Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 58-63.

Swain D.P., Wilcox J.P.1992. Effect of cadence on the economy of uphill
cycling. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. Vol. 24, No. 10, pp. 1123-1127.

Too D. 1990. Biomechanics of cycling and factors affecting
performance.Sports Medicine Vol. 10, No.5, pp 286 - 302

Seifert J.G., Leuetkemeier M.J., Spencer M.K., Miller D., Burke E.R.
1997.The effects of mountain bike suspension systems on energy
expenditure,physical exertion, and time trial performance during
mountain bicycling.
Int. J. Sports Med. Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 197-200.

Jason Leach :

Unfortunately, I do not have any direct information for you. I do know
that at the Velonews website (http://www.greatoutdoors.com/velonews/),
they have a cycling science portion. It costs money to access info
there though. I am a Masters Student in Biomechanics at the University
of Windsor in Canada and am considering my thesis to deal with mountain
biking but unsure as to what aspect as of yet. Try
http://www.SPORTQuest.com for sport discus.

Michael Orendurff:
There is no such literature for off-road bicycling to my knowledge.
Cycling biomechaincs means pedaling biomechanics, and precious few
papers have delt with body position even in road cycling. Here are a
few references from my thesis on impact acceleration with rigid and
suspension forks in mountain biking. I hope this gives you a starting
point and perhaps something more recent is out there--try free medline
on the web.

Abrams, C. F & Sugg, C. W. (1969). Chain saw vibration, Isolation and
transmission through the arm. Transactions
of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 12, 423-425.

Boning, D., Gonen, Y., & Maassen, N. (1984). Relationship between work
load, pedal frequency, and physical fitness. International Journal of
Sport Biomechanics, 5, 92-97.

Bovenzi, M., Zadini, A., Franzinelli, A., & Borgogni, F. (1991).
Occupational musculoskeletal disorders in the neck
and upper limbs of forestry workers exposed to hand-arm vibration.
Ergonomics, 34, 547-562.

Brooke, J. D. & Davies, G. J. (1973). Comments on estimation of the
energy expenditure of sport cycling.
Ergonomics, 16, 237-238.

Burke, E. R. (1980). Physiological characteristics of national and
international competitive cyclists. Physician
and Sportsmedicine, 8 78-84.

Burke, E. R , Cerny, F., Costill, D., & Fink, W. (1977).
Characteristics of skeletal muscle in competitive cyclists.
Medicine and Science in Sports, 9, 109-112.

Coast, J. R. & Welch, H. G. (1985). Linear increase in optimal pedal
rate with increased power output in cycle
ergometry. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 53, 339-342.

Coast, J. R., Cox, H. R. & Welch, H, G. (1986). Optimal pedaling rate
in prolonged bouts of cycle ergometry.
Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, 18, 225-230.

Coyle, E. F., Feltner, M. E., Kautz, S. A., Hamilton, M. T., Mountain,
S. J., Baylor, A. M., Abraham, L. D., &
Petrek, G.W. (1991). Physiological and biomechanical factors
associated with elite endurance cycling
performance. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, 23, 93-107.

Coyle, E. F., Coggan, A. R., Hopper, M. K., & Walters, T. J. (1988).
Determinants of endurance in well trained
cyclists. Journal of Applied Physiology, 64, 2622-2630.

Dal Monte, A., Leonardi, L. M., Menchinelli, C., and Marini, C.
(1987). A new bicycle design based on
biomechanics and advanced technology. International Journal of Sport
Biomechanics, 3, 287-292.

Dickenson, S. (1929). The efficiency of bicycle-pedaling, as affected
by speed and load. Journal of Physiology
(London), 67, 242-255

Dill, D. B., Seed, J. C., Marzulli, F. N. (1954). Energy expenditure
in bicycling riding. European Journal of
Physiology, Occupational Physiology, 7, 320-324.

Ericson, M. O. & Nissell, R. (1988). Efficiency of pedal forces during
ergometer cycling. International Journal of
Sports Medicine, 9, 118-122.

Ericson, M. O., Nissell, R., Arborelius, U. P., & Ekholm, J. (1986).
Muscular activity during ergometer cycling.
Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitative Medicine, 17, 53-61.

Espanoza, Z. (June, 1990) Suspension forks. Mountain Bike Action, 4(2),

Faria, I., Dix, C., & Fraser, C. (1978). Effects of body position
during cycling on heart rate, pulmonary
ventilation, oxygen uptake and work output. Journal of Sports Medicine
and Physical Fitness. 18(49),

Gonzalez, H, & Hull, M. L. (1989). Multivariate optimization of
cycling biomechanics. Journal of
Biomechanics, 22, 1151-1161.

Hagberg, J. M., Mullin, J. P., Bahrke, M., & Limburg, J. (1981).
Physiological profiles and selected psychological
characteristics of national class American cyclists. Journal of Sports
Medicine, 19, 341-346.

Hempstock, T. I., & O'Connor, D. E. (1978). Assessment of hand
transmitted vibration. Annals of Occupational
Hygiene, 21, 57-67.

Hull, M. L. & Davis, R. R. (1981). Measurement of pedal loading in
bicycling, 1. Instrumentation. Journal of
Biomechanics, 14, 842-856

Hull, M. L. & Gonzalez, H. (1988a). Bivariate optimization of pedaling
rate and crank arm length in
cycling. Journal of Biomechanics, 21, 839-849.

Hull, M. L., Gonzalez, H. K., & Redfield, R. (1988b). Optimization of
pedaling rate in cycling using a muscle
stress-based objective function. International Journal of Sport
Biomechanics, 4, 1-20.

Hull, M. L., Kautz, S, & Beard, A. (1991). An angular velocity profile
in cycling derived from mechanical energy
analysis. Journal of Biomechanics, 24, 577-586.

Hull, M. L., Beard, A. & Varma, H. (1990). Goniometric measurement of
hip motion in cycling while standing.
Journal of Biomechanics, 23, 687-703.

International Organization for Standardization ISO 2631-1978. (1978).
Guide for the Evaluation of Human
Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration. Stockholm, International Organization
for Standardization.

International Organization for Standardization ISO 5349 (1980). Guide
for the Measurement and Evaluation of Human Exposure to Vibration
Transmitted to the Hand, Stockholm, International Organization for

International Organization for Standardization ISO 5349 (1986).
Mechanical Vibrations-Guidelines for the
Measurement and the Assessment of Human Exposure to Hand-Transmitted
Vibration. Stockholm, International
Organization for Standardization.

Jordan, L. & Merrill, E. G. (1979). Relative efficiency as a function
of pedaling rate for racing cyclists.
Journal of Physiology (London), 296, 49P-50P.

Kuntslinger, U., Ludwig, H. G., & Stegeman, J. (1985). Force kinetics
and oxygen consumption during bicycle
ergometer work in racing cyclists and reference-group. European Journal
of Applied Physiology, 54, 58-61.

LaFortune, M. A., & Cavanagh, P. R. (1983). Effectiveness and
efficiency during bicycle riding. In,
BiomechanicsVIIIB, Matsui & Kobayashi (Eds.) Champaign, IL, Human
Kinetics, 928-936.

McCole, S. D., Claney, K., Conte, J-C., Anderson, R. & Hagberg, J. M.
(1990). Energy expenditure during
bicycling. Journal of Applied Physiology, 68, 748-753.

McLean B. & LaFortune, M. A. (1988). Improving pedaling technique with
"real-time" biomechanical feedback. EXCEL, 5, 15-18.

Medbø, J. I. & Tabata, I. (1989). Relative importance of aerobic and
anaerobic energy release during short-term
exhaustive bicycle exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 67,

Miller, T. A., Martin, P. E. & Wells, C. L. (1988). The effect of
position and cadence on the biomechanical
characteristics of hill climbing cyclists. Proceedings of the 12th
Annual Meeting of the American Society of
Biomechanics. 126-127, Champaign, IL.

Mistrot, P., Donati, P., Galminche, J. P. and Florentin, D. (1990)
Assessing the discomfort of whole-body multi-axix
vibration: laboratory and field experiments. Ergonomics 33, 1523-1536.

Munnings, F. (1991). Cyclist's palsy, making changes brings relief.
The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 19(5),

Nakamura, H. and Haverkamp, M. (1991) Effects of whole-body vertical
shock-type vibration on human ability
for fine motor control. Ergonomics 34, 1365-1376.

Orendurff, M. S., Fujimoto, K., & Smith, G. A. (1994). The effect of
mountain bike suspension fork stiffness on
impact acceleration characteristics. Medicine and Science in Sport and
Exercise, 26, S176.

Plagenhoff, S., Evans, F. G., & Abdelnour, T. (1983). Anatomical data
for analyzing human motion. Research
Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 54, 169-178.

Pugh, L. C. (1974). The relation of oxygen intake and speed in
competition cycling and comparative observations
on the bicycle ergometer. Journal of Physiology (London), 241, 795-808.

Pyykko, I., Farkkila, M., Toivanen, J., Korhonen, O., & Hyvarinen, J.
(1976). Transmission of vibration in the
hand-arm system with special reference to changes in compression force
and acceleration. Scandinavian Journal
of Work, Environment and Health, 2, 87-95.

Pyykko, I., Korhonen, O., Farkkila, M., Starck, J., Aatola, S. & Jantti,
V. (1986). Vibration syndrome among Finnish workers, a follow-up from
1972 to 1983. Scandinavian
Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 12, 307-312.

Redfield, R. & Hull, M. L. (1986). On the relationship between joint
moments and pedaling rates at constant power
in bicycling. Journal of Biomechanics, 19, 317-329.

Report on bicycle sales. (1990). American Bicycle Manufacturers
Association, West Palm Beach, FL.

Reynolds, D. D. (1972). Dynamic response of the hand-arm system to a
sinusoidal input. Journal of Sound and
Vibration. 21, 339-353.

Reynolds, D. D. (1977). Hand-arm vibration, a review of 3 years'
research. In Proceedings of International
Occupational Hand-arm Vibration Conference. (National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health, DHEW (NIOSH) Publication N0. 77-170)
(Government Printing Office, Washington, DC) 99-128.

Ritchie, A. (1975). King of the Road, an Illustrated History of
Cycling. Berkeley. Ten Speed Press.

Ryschon, T. W. & Stray-Gunderson, J. (1991). The effect of body
position on the energy cost of cycling. Medicine
and Science in Sports and Exercise, 23, 949-953.

Schmidtke, H. (1984). Ergonomic Data for Equipment Design. New York,
Plenum Press.

Seabury, J. J., Adams, W. C. & Ramey, M. R. (1977). Influence of
pedaling rate and power output on energy expenditure during bicycle
ergometry. Ergonomics, 20, 499-519.

Seifert, J. G., Leutkemeier, M. J., Spencer, M., Miller, D. & Burke, E.
R. (1994). Physical and performance responses to cycling with
suspension bicycles during mountain biking.
Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, 26, S63.

Shea, K. G., Shumsky, I. B., & Shea, O. F. (Sept. 1991). Shifting into
wrist pain, DeQuervain's disease and off-road
mountain biking. The Physician and Sportsmedicine. 19(9), 59-63.

Stevenson, E. P. (1982). The High-Tech Bicycle. New York, Harper &

Swain, D. P., Coast, P. S., Clifford, P. S., Milliken, M. C. &
Stray-Gunderson, J. (1987). Estimation of energy
expenditure of cyclists. Journal of Applied Physiology, 62, 668-672.

Van Baak, M. A. & Binkhorst, R. A. (1981). Oxygen consumption during
outdoor recreational cycling.
Ergonomics, 24, 725-733.

Whitt, F. R. (1971). A note on the estimation of energy expenditure of
sporting cyclists. Ergonomics, 14, 419-423

Widrick, J. J., Freedson, P. S., Hamil, J. (1992). Effect on internal
work on the calculation of optimal pedaling
rates. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, 24, 376-382.

Winter, D. A. (1990). Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human
Movement. 2nd Ed. New York, Wiley.

Wooten, D. (1993). Personal communication.

Yoshihuku, Y. & Herzog, W. (1990). Optimal design parameters of the
bicycle-rider system for maximal muscle
power output. Journal of Biomechanics, 23, 1069-1079.

Brian R. Umberger :
You might be interested in reading our recent article in Journal of
Human Movement Studies, "Difference in power output during cycling at
different seat tube angles", 35: 21-36 (1998). Although we manipulated
hip angle (by changing seat tube angle), while holding trunk angle
constant, and did not address comfort issues, you might still find the
information useful. If you do not have access to the journal I can send
you a reprint.

tel;fax:+33 (0) 556846964
tel;home:+33 (0) 556374067
tel;work:+33 (0) 686828376
adr:;;Laboratoire,Mécanique Physique, Université Bordeaux I, 351 cours de la Libération;Talence;;33405;FRANCE
title:Engineer PhD & Biomechanical Consulting
fn:Nicolas BELLUYE