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Tobias Sundberg
05-05-1999, 10:10 PM
Dear list members,

Many thanks for all help with references, tips and comments on my posting regarding the validity and reliability of tests assessing vertical jump hight. Your comments have been most useful. Please find below a copy of my original message followed by a summary of responses.

Once again, many thanks.

Tobias

----------------------
TOBIAS SUNDBERG, P.T.
Sundberg@altavista.net

"Obligor Salus Populi"



-----ORIGINAL MESSAGE-----

Subject: vertical jump hight

Dear list members,

I am going to assess vertical jump hight in basketball
players before and after a certain training regimen. Not
being able to use force plates, video capturing systems or
other laboratory bound equipment I am considering the use of
different field tests. I know of a few tests including:
"Abalakow-test", "jump-and-reach-test" and the so called
"Bosco-test" (jump flight time).

My concern is the validity and reliability of these tests.
Does anyone know of any studies investigating this matter on
the above tests or on other field tests targeting vertical
jump hight? I have used internet search engines and MEDLINE
with little result.

Many thanks in advance.



-----SUMMARY OF RESPONSES-----

From: Peter Keir pjkeir@yorku.ca
To: Tobias Sundberg Sundberg@altavista.net

Check out:
Sayers, et al (1999) Cross-validation of three jump power equations. Med Sci Sports Exerc 31(4): 572-577.

Peter

--------------------

In the Journal of Strength & Conditioning we published a paper 'Power
Output Estimate in University Athletes" 10(3), 161-166. In this paper we
developed regression equations to estimate leg power from vertical jump
height & body mass.

Rafael Bahamonde

--------------------

Tobias:

Rick Hinrichs and I have been involved in vertical jumping research for a few years now. I found that most methods are highly reliable. Between and within-day intraclass correlation coefficients typically exceed .95. However, some methods appear to be more valid than others. For example, we have shown that the traditional "vertical jump and reach test" overestimates "true flight height" (the in-flight elevation of the CM) by about 37%. More troubling is the finding that subjects will be ranked in different orders depending on the methods used to evaluate "jumping performance". In order of priority, I would recommend the following tests to evaluate the true elevation of the CM during jump tests:

1. Use a force plate to quantify vertical impulse. Use this to calculate vertical velocity and then flight height.
2. Use the time of flight. This method is prone to errors associated with differences between the height of the center of mass at takeoff and at landing. However, we have recently demonstrated that when properly controlled, there is a strong relationship between flight height estimates obtained from the force plate (True) and those obtained from a time of flight method (TOF). [True = 0.92175*TOF + 0.01808, R^2=0.91644, SD =0.02285, n = 323].
3. Use the traditional jump and reach test but use a tip-toed reach as the baseline value. This reduces the overestimate of true flight height to about 18% and rank order consistency improves. An additional modification can be made using a reaction board to account for the difference in the position of the center of mass at takeoff and at the peak of the jump. This correction reduces the overestimate of true flight height to about 11%.

More information about these methods are available in abstract form. We have submitted a full-length manuscript for publication.

Hinrichs, R.N., & Vint, P.F. (1994). A comparison of Sargent jump height and actual flight height in vertical jumping. Presented at the American Society of Biomechanics Annual Meeting, Columbus, OH.

Hope this helped.

Peter
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Peter F. Vint, Ph.D.
Department of Exercise and Sport Science
256 HHP Building, PO Box 26169
University of North Carolina at Greensboro
Greensboro, NC 27402-6169
Phone: (336) 334-3031
Fax: (336) 334-3031
E-mail: pfvint@uncg.edu
URL: http://www.uncg.edu/~pfvint

--------------------

Dear Tobias,

May be these two recent papers are of interest to you:

T Driss, H Vandewalle, H Monod. Maximal power and force-velocity
relationships during cycling and cranking exercises in volleyball players -
Correlation with the vertical jump test. Journal of Sports Medicine and
Physical Fitness, 1998, Vol 38, Iss 4, pp 286-293

R Petschnig, R Baron, M Albrecht. The Relationship Between Isokinetic
Quadriceps Strength Test and Hop Tests for Distance and One-Legged Vertical
Jump Test Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. Journal of
Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 1998, Vol 28, Iss 1, pp 23-31

Best regards
Rolf

Rolf Moe-Nilssen, MS, PT, Research fellow, Division of Physiotherapy Science,
Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, Faculty of Medicine,
University of Bergen, Ulriksdal 8c, N-5009 Bergen, Norway,
email: rolf.moe-nilssen@isf.uib.no voice:+47 55 58 61 70, fax:+47 55 58 61 30

--------------------

Tobias,

I found the intrrater reliability of the vertical jump test to be very
reliable when performing repeated testing (5 occasions) of single leg
vertical jump in a group of 15 patients following ACL reconstructions.
See Journal of Orthop and Sports Phys Therapy 1999, 29(1):39-48
Tony Brosky
(Testing apparatus: Vertec)

Tony Brosky, MS,PT,SCS
Assistant Professor

Carroll College
Department of Physical Therapy
100 North East Avenue
Waukesha, WI 53186 USA

Phone: (414) 524-7669
Department Fax: (414) 524-7690
email: tbrosky@carroll1.cc.edu

--------------------

You may want to consider the use of a Vertec apparatus if your only desire
is to measure changes in jump height. This device (if you are not familiar
with it) utilizes plastic markers set at a specified height. The subject
then jumps and hits the markers out of the way. The markers moved are
represented by different colors, which can give you the peak of the
vertical jump. However, if you are interested in determining power, then
this apparatus will not be as useful to you.

Hope this helps,

Sean

Sean Keegan
Biomechanics Graduate Program
Asst. Coach Men's Track and Field
Ball State University

--------------------

We completed a study on the effects of ballistic resistance training on
volleyball players. Flight time, contact time, and the ratio between the two were found to be sensitive indicators of changes in jump performance. We used a simple contact mat and software for testing these variables as times were the same as that derived from a forceplate. The reference is:

Newton, R.U., W.J. Kraemer, and K. Häkkinen. Short-term ballistic
resistance training in the pre-season preparation of elite volleyball
players. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31(2): 323-330, 1999.

Regards
Robert U. Newton Ph.D.
Senior Lecturer and Director of Postgraduate Studies and Research
School of Exercise Science and Sport Management
Southern Cross University
PO Box 157 Lismore NSW 2480 Australia
Phone (61) 2 6620 3234 Fax (61) 2 6620 3880
Email rnewton@scu.edu.au Website http://sessm.scu.edu.au/RobertNewton

--------------------

Hi Tobias,

One paper you might find useful is listed below (with abstract) which I
got from the 'Sports Discus' database (I find it much better than
Medline for such topics). I haven't had the chance to get the article
myself yet, so I don't know if it's any good.

One assumption with the 'flight time method' of calculating jump height
is that the subject's centre of mass at take-off is the same height as
that of landing. To aid in satisfying this assumption it is usual for
the jump to be performed with hands on hips. I have used this method as
a quick method of subject feedback when performing jumps on a force
platform; then later I caluclated the jump heights using vertical
impulse. Although I don't have the figures, I generally found that the
flight time method over-estimated jump height when compared to the
impulse method. I suppose this could be corrected by making the subject
'attend' to take-off and landing positions, however, this might distract
them from the jump itself.

Another factor to be considered is, do you want to make the test more
specific to the sporting performance? You may judge the hands on hips
requirement of the 'flight time method' not to be specific to jumping in
basketball.

Would you please let me know what the "Abalakow-test" is. Also, I am
very interested in the other replys you get; I would greatly appreciate
a sumary of responses when you get the time.

Best of luck with your jump project.

Joe Hunter
PhD Student
Department of Sport and Exercise Science
The University of Auckland
New Zealand

Author
Young, W. Macdonald, Ch. Heggen, T. Fitzpatrick, J.
Title
An evaluation of the specificity, validity and reliability of jumping
tests.
Source
Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness 37(4), Dec 1997,
240-245
English Abstract
There were three objectives of this study: 1. To describe the
influence of using a single and double leg take-off as a function of run-up length in jumping for height. 2. To determine if various types of jumps are
specific in nature. 3. To evaluate two methods of assessing jumping height (a modified Vertec or Yardstick and a Board) for validity and inter-day
reliability. Seventeen male subjects were tested on jumps for height
from a standing position and using a 1,3,5 and 7 stride run-up. These jumps
were performed using a single and double leg take-off measured by the
Yardstick. Selected jumps were also tested using a Board method and
repeated for assessment of reliability. The single leg take-off
produced significantly higher jumps when the run-up was three or more strides. The inter-relationships among jump conditions were generally high, however jump types could be considered as specific when the run-up length and number of legs used in the take-off were different. The Yardstick
produced significantly greater jump heights than the Board method, which
questions the validity of using a board for assessment fo maximum jump
performance. The reliability of both methods was generally high however the jumps performed from a run-up produced less reliable results than the
standing jumps for the Yardstick. It was suggested that the design of tests to assess jumping ability should consider the specific jump type used in
the sport of interest and that the Yardstick is the preferred mode of
testing, provided that attempts are made to maximise reliability.
Date of Publication 1997

--------------------

Dear Tobias,

I think that the most reliable way to assess the vertical jump height in
athletes is to use the contact mat. It has been found to be a reliable and
valid method for evaluation of the vertical jump height. It has been used
extensively from performance testing to rehabilitation.

There is also quite a bit of reference values to the performace criteria in
a variety of sports (at least here in Finland). These include volleyball,
hockey, basketball, track and field etc. Finnish coaches, trainers and
sports scientists have used the contact mat systems in performance
evaluation for the past (almost 20) years.

Please, visit our (Newtest Oy) website. There is a library for literature
search especially in this area.
There is also information on the testing systems - the Powertimer - we
manufacture and sell. I hope you don't mind, but I took a liberty to attach
a short summary on the subject. I have quite a few reference articles in
this subject and I have worked quite a bit with athletes (both coaching as
well as testing and research). I would like to discuss further about the
subject and your research project and possible co-operation.

For further information, please, check out our website
http://www.newtest.com or contact me.

Good luck with your project!

Best wishes,

NEWTEST OY

Mr. Matti Tossavainen
M. Sc. (Biomechanics & Exercise Physiology)

======================================
NEWTEST OY
Kiviharjuntie 11, 90220 Oulu, Finland
Phone: +358-(0)8-537 2277
Fax: +358-(0)8-537 2270
Mobile phone: +358-(0)40-730 2172
http://www.newtest.com

--------------------

Tobias,

..Earlier this spring I was working on a project where I learned of
Schmidtbleicher's "reactive strength resources" test: He compares squat
jump performance with drop jumps from heights of 16, 24, 32, 40 and 48
cm; possibly up to 56 cm, depending on qualification level. A novice
athlete's best drop jump performance may be 20-25% below his/her squat
jump, indicating large reactive resources. This can be interpreted as a
functional deficit in one's short-response SSC abilities, with the
subsequent need to emphasize reactive movements (such as drop jumps,
vertical jumps or countermovement jumps) in training. In contrast, an
elite athlete's drop jump result may be up to 20-25% greater than
his/her squat jump, indicating small reactive resources. In this case,
basic strength should be emphasized through hypertrophic and/or neural
adaptations in order to create "new" reactive resources.

I would think there must be norms available for this test (although I
have never seen them published). Are you aware of any?

Steven Scott Plisk, M.S., C.S.C.S.
Director of Sports Conditioning
Yale University
P.O. Box 208216
New Haven, CT 06520-8216
tel: 203 432-2526 fax: 203 432-2495
e-mail: steven.plisk@yale.edu http://www.yale.edu/athletics

--------------------

Dear Tobias

I have some information regarding the reliability of the Bosco-test (also
called Ergo Jump) and other flight time based systems:
This is the basic problems which are reported:

1.) The jump height and related parameters have very high inter- and
intra-subject variability. The reason is, that sometimes you land with slightly bent legs. This increases your flight time but not your jump height.

2.) It is impossible to say if a jump has been performed correctly. The reason is, that the measured parameter (flight time) does not contain any information on the jump and specially the concentric and excentric phase. A force plate measurement contains all this information.

Kistler is developing a force plate based jump performance test. If you are
interested please send us your contact information and we will keep you
informed.

Best Regards
Christian Calame

Mr. Christian Calame, Product Manager Biomechanics
Kistler Instrumente AG Winterthur, P.O.Box 304,
CH-8408 Winterthur, Switzerland
Tel: +41 52 224 11 11, Fax: +41 52 224 14 14
E-Mail: cl@kistler.ch, http://www.kistler.ch/biomech

--------------------

Dear Tobias,
I believe you can stop your search right now!! There is really only few about this topic which is ok and scientifically good. I have been searching alot too, and I shall send you the references of the best articles in Excel format. Don't have too much hope about it, because it is really a small collection... I'll do it tomorrow morning as soon as possible. If you wish any recommendations on it then, I'll always be prepared for helping you.

yours sincerely,
Jos
Teaching Assistant/Ph.D. student.

////
( @@ )
--------oOO-(__)-OOo----------------
Jos Vanrenterghem
Department of Kinesiology
University of Gent
Watersportlaan 2 B-9000 Gent
BELGIUM
Tel.:+32/(0)9/264.63.36
E-mail: Jos.Vanrenterghem@rug.ac.be

information in excel file:

Adamec Jiri, Novotny Petr, Vaverka Frantisek. A comparison of various methods for the assessment of vertical jump height. Abstract (unknown year of publication). Geen.

Bobbert M.F., Schamhardt Henk C. Accuracy of determining the point of force application with piezoelectric force plates. Journal of Biomechanics (1990) 23, 705-710.

Bosco Carmelo, Luhtanen Pekka, Komi Paavo V. A simple method for measurement of mechanical power in jumping. European J. of Applied Physiology (1983) 50, 273-282.

Cavagna Giovanni A. Force platforms as ergometers. Journal of Applied Physiology (1985) 39, 174-179.

Hatze Herbert. Validity and reliability of methods for testing vertical jumping performance. Journal of Applied Biomechanics (1998) 14, 127-140.

Nagano Akinori, Ischige Yusuke, Fukashiro Senshi. Comparison of new approaches to estimate mechanical output of individual joints in vertical jumps. Journal of Biomechanics (1998) 31:951-955.

Thirunarayan Mandyam A., Kerrigan D. Casey, Rabuffetti Marco, Croce Ugo Della, Saini Meera. Comparison of three methods for estimating vertical displacement of center of mass during level walking patients. Gait and Posture (1996) 4, 306-314.

Virmavirta M., Avela J., Komi P.V. A comparison of different methods to determine the take-off velocity in vertical jumps. Abstract (1995). Geen.

Young W., MacDonald Ch., Heggen T., Fitzpatrick J. An evaluation of the specificity, validity and reliability of jumping tests. The journal of sports medicine and physical fitness (1997) 37:240-245.

--------------------

You were interested in the "Bosco-test" (jump flight time). A good friend of mine (Marco Cardinale) in Italy is a close colleague of Bosco, so you could contact him at:

You are welcome to tell him that you were referred to him by me. Let me know what transpires.

Very sincerely

Mel Siff

Dr Mel C Siff
Denver, USA
mcsiff@aol.com

---

Correspondence with Marco Cardinale:
(. . . abbreviated)

Q: . . . We are therefore a bit concerned with the jump-flight-time method being prone to errors associated with differences between the height of the center of mass (CM) at takeoff and at landing. What would you suggest to be the simplest approach to minimize/override this "CM-dilemma" if we are to assess a single vertical jump for hight in a sport specific way?

> Ok...I understand. In Italy the Bosco tests executed with the Ergo jump mat are the standard for testing elite athletes in almost every sport. We use it in the Olympic Committee and in national federations. We have some basic tests which are common to all sports (Squat Jump, Counter Movement Jump, Stiffness, 15" jumping and so on), we then have some special tests such as the CMJ with hands free (to calculate % of coordination gain in vertical jump) or everybody design his/her own tests ( I use to test my Handball players with the 1 step run-in shot or 3 steps run-in shots, or volleyball players with the spike).
Regarding this biomechanical dilemma, I try to solve it.
First, the tests protocol used and described by Bosco are very strict and are made to avoid this problem.
Second, When you take off the CM is already at least 6-10 cm above the ground since the athlete is on the toe and the heels are lifted then it raises the CM (However we already calculated this error), then you jump and then there is the flight time giving you the height of rise of CM (Asmussen & Bonde Petersen, 1974) and then you land with straight legs minimizing CM displacement downwards. I want to point that the flight time measurement stops as soon as you touch the ground, so basically when you come back to the starting position. It can be described as an harmonic oscillation ...
When repeated jumping are executed, you can calculate also downward displacement of CM...with a mathematical formula.
Third, if you want to perform a sport specific test, instruct your athletes to perform a vertical jump...sometimes they perform a long jump, then the value which comes out is not reliable...

Q: Are you familiar with the Abalakow-test? Do you know of any studies published using this method to assess vertical jump hight? . . .

Yes, I know this test, but I do not have any reference material for it, just textbooks with description, no reference data available and no scientific evidence whatsoever.

Q: Do you know of any studies comparing the Abalakow-test to jump-flight-time or force-plate/impulse calculations on vertical jump hight assessment?

> No comparison with Abalakow. Something compared with force plates as far as I remember but no reference here in front of me at the moment, I will check. I want to point out that Bosco test is not only flight time measurement, Bosco tests are a specific test battery to assess multiple qualities of lower limbs muscles, moreover, it is possible to determine FT fibers percentage through indirect measure (measuring 3 different jumping tests) , it is a very reliable measure (it gave r=.92 with 16 biopsies). Another thing, Kystler is implementing a new system called quattro-jump Boscosystem, a new force plate which permits to perform Bosco tests, it is not a scientific information but I think it gives some more credits to the test protocols.

I hope it was of help, if you need further information feel free of contacting me. I will check some references for you and then email them.

References:

Bosco,C., Luhtanen, P., Komi, P.V. (1983). A simple method for measurement of mechanical power in jumping. Eur.J. Appl.Physiol. 50: 273-282
(reliability 0.95)

Bosco, C. (1992). La valutazione della forza con il test di Bosco. Società Stampa Sportiva: Roma. (This book has been translated also in French, Spanish, Greek as far as I know)

best regards,
Marco Cardinale

Marco Cardinale, M.S.S.
Associate Editor
Coaching & Sport Science Journal
Via G.Bruno 30
04022 Fondi (LT)
ITALY
Email: marcar@meda.it

--------------------

I am researching into ACL reconstruction results and as so have come across
a few references related to various functional tests that may be of use to
you.

Assessment of Functional Tests after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Surgery,
Risberg and Ekeland, JOSPT 1994 Vol 19 p212-217

Assessing Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries: The Association and
Differential Value of Questionnaires, Clinical Tests and Functional Tests.
Neeb, Aufdemkampe, Wagener and Mastenbroek, JOSPT 1997, Vol 26, p324-331

A Dynamic Test of Lower Extremity Function Following Anterior Cruciate
Ligament Reconstruction and Rehabilitation. Juris, Phillips, Dalpe,
Edwards, Gotlin and Kane. JOSPT 1997, Vol 26 p184-191

Hope these are of some use

Alison Dakin MCSP
Leicester, England

--------------------

Tobias,
I am finishing up a project regarding vertical jump performance, and I
ran across a study that claimed that the "Margaria power test" was the
most accurate when compared to "stand & reach" and a couple others. The
only problem is that I did not make a copy of the article, but I think
the article was in the NSCA JOURNAL, or the Journal of Strength and
Conditioning. If I can recall it exactly, I will let you know. By the
way, the purpose of the study was to find the most accurate test when
administering power tests.

Zack Cash
CSU, Fullerton
Zack Cash"

--------------------

Dear Tobias,

Have you thought of using something like BioLINK in your study. We have a
vertical jump application that allows you to use video based motion analysis to measure a multitude of parameters including vertical displacement of COM, acceleration of COM off of the ground, core/trunk stability, muscular loading, and coordination. Data can be collected inside, outside, practice and games. It is collected without any markers, wires or external fixtures.

Check out our web site at www.hpt-biolink.com or give our office a call at
1-888-447-8462.

Chris Welch

--------------------

Dear Dr. Sundberg,

I wanted to make you aware of a new product being released by Kistler during early summer 1999. It is called Quattro Jump, and is a vertical jump
plate/software system that sells for $9995 US complete, including plate,
software, all cabling, and a modern laptop computer. The plate is a 1 meter
square and is completely portable. The software is completely based on the
Bosco protocol, and each plate system comes with a copy of Professor Bosco's textbook regarding the vertical jump.

I know this does not directly answer your question, but I wanted to bring
this to your attention simply for reference. I know you could not have
found this product using MEDLINE because it is new and is yet to be
released.

I would be happy to answer any questions you may have, and you can check out the plate at the ACSM in Seattle if you are planning on attending, we are in booth 307. Good luck with all of your studies.

Best regards,
Ken Wagener

Kenneth P. Wagener (kwagener@kistler.com)
Biomechanics Product Manager
Kistler Instrument Corporation, USA

--------------------

Not being able to use force plates, video capturing systems or other
laboratory bound equipment I am considering the use of different field
tests.

With regard to the above, we have developed a 'simple but accurate' software system for analysis of video images from normal video cameras, that would allow you to measure the distance frame by frame and find the highest to two decimal places in centimetres. The cost is £180.00 complete with the capture card for installation in any IBM compatible computer. This may serve your purpose.

Please email me if you would like further details

Cheers

Robin

Robin Shutt MA.Ba. MCSP.DipTp.
Lecturer in Physiotherapy
School of Health
University of East Anglia
Norwich

--------------------

Tobias,

Concerning your query about measuring vertical jump:
I do not have a great deal of knowledge of other studies but I will
share information about one study that I was involved in during my MS
program in Chapel Hill, NC.
I used high speed cinematography measure Michael Jordan's vertical jump.
If you are interested I will send you the abstract of this which was
presented as a poster at CSM in Seattle in 1999.
Since I did use high speed cinematography to capture and a VanGuard
motion analyzer to measure this may not be applicable to your situation
but I could make some suggestions based on my experience.
Let me know if you are interested.
My e-mail address is: jfkrugh@ski.uhcolorado.edu
Jerry Krugh MS, PT, ATC

Tobias,

I am attaching the abstract that was published in JOSPT in January,
1999. I hope to publish this in the fairly near future. The copy of
the abstract I am giving you has corrected the vertical velocity value
that was incorrect in the JOSPT.
This was done several years ago when I was in a Master's program.
The one thing I would do differently now (besides use digital
videoanalysis equipment) would be to include a trial of standing
vertical jump without armswing.
He was allowed free armswing in all of my trials.
I will be interested in seeing your responses.
Jerry Krugh

Abstract:

MICHAEL JORDAN’S VERTICAL JUMP.
Krugh J, LeVeau B. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study, which was part of an advanced master’s motion analysis class project in 1983, was to determine Michael Jordan’s maximum vertical jump.

SUBJECT: Michael Jordan

METHODS: Surface markers: Left lateral malleolus, left femoral epicondyle, left greater trochanter, left pelvic crest, and right distal phalanges of digits 2 and 3 of the hand.

Tasks (in order) were:
Vertical reach while standing flat-footed - baseline
Vertical reach during a jump from standing
Vertical reach during a jump from running
Vertical reach during a 1 hand dunk
Vertical reach during a 2 hand dunk

All tasks, except baseline vertical reach were done with free swing of the upper limb(s). Equipment / instrumentation: Camera, lighting, markers, meter stick, and standard basketball. Location: Fetzer Gymnasium, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

DATA ANALYSIS:
Distance measurements were analyzed by comparison to a meter stick in view of the camera. Displacement measurements of reach (pelvis) involved measurement of vertical height to the tip of fingers 2 and 3 (pelvis) during a task minus vertical height to the tip of fingers 2 and 3 (pelvis) during bilateral flat-footed stance. Velocity measurements were analyzed by dividing vertical height distance traveled divided by time taken for the tasks. A VanGuard Motion Analyzer was used to analyze motion frame by frame.

RESULTS:
Maximum measurements:
Vertical reach while standing flat-footed 93.67 in.
Floor to pelvic crest while standing 49.00 in.
Vertical reach displacement during a jump from standing 35.93 in.
Vertical displacement of the pelvis during a jump from running 38.07 in.
Vertical velocity during a jump from running 701.00 o/sec.
Vertical reach displacement during a jump from running 45.76 in.
Vertical reach displacement during a 1 hand dunk 41.70 in.
Vertical reach displacement during a 2 hand dunk 40.93 in.

During the vertical reach from standing, push from the floor was with both feet. During the vertical reach during a jump from running, push from the floor was with one foot and momentum of the body, two upper limbs, and one lower limb was used to the maximum.

CONCLUSION / CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Maximum displacement for vertical reach was achieved with a jump from a running start, a 2 hand dunk, a 1 hand dunk, and a jump from standing, respectively. This is consistent with use of momentum of the body and limbs to assist with the vertical displacement. Michael Jordan’s vertical jump ability during several tasks provides a standard with which athletic achievement by others can be compared.

--------------------
Responses in Swedish:
--------------------

Hej Tobias

Såg din fråga om hopptester. kan rekomendera en artikel där det senare nämda "sargeant test" är intrareliabilitetstestat (r=.99)
Lyder som följer: MacKean, L.C., Bell, G., & Burnham, R.S (1995) Prophylactic Ankle Brasing Vs. Taping: Effects on Functional Performance in Female Basketball Players. Journal of Orthopaedics and Sports Physical Therapy, 22(2), 77-81.

hoppas det hjälper!

Hälsningar Jörgen Pettersson

--------------------

Tjena Tobias!
Mätningen med måttband fäst vid midjan och löpande i golvet känner Du
väl till? Från undersökningen Liv -90, Korpen-Folksam.

Lycka till!

Jukka Kasurinen

--------------------

Hej Tobias

Arbetsmiljöinstitutet har gett ut en vetenskaplig skriftserie som heter
Arbete och Hälsa. I numret 1992:5 behandlas utvärdering av olika
funktionella test. Där ingår bl.a "Sargent Jump", ett mått på maximal
dynamisk styrka i extensormuskulaturen. Man har tittat på reliabiliteten vid test-retest och funnit den acceptabel. Testets validitet känner jag inte till men tycker det vore vettigt att använda för det syfte du beskriver. Du kan ju söka på Medline under sargent jump och validity. Hör av dig om du hittar något.

Hälsningar

Annika Blum
Sundpunkten, Helsingborg
lawblum@telia.com

--------------------

Also many thanks to the following people with whom corresponding has taken place:

Anreas Jonasson, Skovde, Sweden, for providing a copy of their project on Sargent's Jump.

Sophie Abeln for comments on the Abalakow test.

Luis of Lakeland, Florida for comments on equipment.

--------------------

END of message.

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