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Thomas Pandorf
05-17-1999, 07:48 PM
Dear Biomechler,

here is a summary of the responses I received. Thanks to all responders!

The original question was:

I have a question concerning tennis rackets. Are there any standardized
measurement procedures to determine the dynamic forces acting on the
hand and arm when hitting the ball? Does anybody know suitable
measurement techniques to measure these values? The problem behind that
is the determination of racket frequencies and its resulting forces on
the player.

The replies:

You should contact Duane Knudson, [DKNUDSON@csuchico.edu]. He has done
several studies using small force transducers on the handle to measure
forces during the forehand stroke

Rafael Bahamonde

__________________________________________________ ______________



Dear Thomas,

The reference list below may be a starting point for your question. Good
luck,

Rob Bower

================================================== =====================

Baker, J., & Putnam, C., (1979). Tennis Racquet and Ball Responses
During
Impact Under Clamped and Freestanding Conditions. Research Quarterly,
50(2), 164-170.

Brannigan, M., & Adali, S. (1981). Mathematical modelling and simulation
of
a tennis racquet. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, (1),
44-53.

Brody, H. (1987). Models of Tennis Racquet Impacts. International
Journal
of Sport Biomechanics, (3), 293-296.

Brody, H. (1989). Vibration Damping of Tennis Racquets. International
Journal of Sport Biomechanics, (5), 451-456.

Elliott, B.C. (1982b). Tennis: The Influence of Grip Tightness on
Reaction
Impulse and Rebound Velocity. Medicine and Science in Sports and
Exercise,
14(5), 348-352.

Elliott, B.C. Blanksby, B.A., & Ellis, R. (1980). Vibration and rebound
velocity characteristics of conventional and oversized tennis racquets.
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 51(4), 608-615.

Grabiner, M., Groppel, J., Campbell, K. (1983). Resultant tennis ball
velocity as a function of off-centre impact and grip firmness. Medicine
and
Science in Sports and Exercise, 15(6), 542-544.

Hatze, H. (1992a). Objective Biomechanical Determination of Tennis
Racquet
Properties. International Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 8, 175-287.

Hatze, H. (1992b). The Effectiveness of Grip Bands in Reducing Racquet
Vibration Transfer and Slipping. Medicine and Science in Sports and
Exercise, 24(20), 226-230

Hatze, H. (1976). Forces and duration of impact, and grip tightness
during
the tennis stroke. Medicine and Science in Sports, 8(2), 88-95.

Hennig, E., Rosenbaum, D., & Milani, T. (1992). Transfer of Tennis
Racquet
Vibrations onto the Human Forearm. Medicine and Science in Sports and
Exercise, 1134-1140.

Knudson, D. (1991b) Factors Affecting Force Loading on the Hand in the
Tennis Forehand. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 31(4),
527-531.

Knudson, D., & White S. (1989) Forces on the Hand in the Tennis Forehand

Drive: Application of Force Sensing Resistors. International Journal of
Sport Biomechanics, 5, 324-331.

Missavage, R., Baker, J., & Putnam, C. (1984). Theoretical modelling of
grip firmness during ball-racquet impact. Research Quarterly for
Exercise
and Sport, 55(3) 254-260.

Watanabe, T., Ikegami Y., & Miyashita M., (1979). Tennis: The Effects of

Grip Firmness on Ball Velocity after Impact. Medicine and Science in
Sports
and Exercise, 11(4), 359-361.

__________________________________________________ ___________


Dear Thomas

In order to measure the forces applied on tennis rackets, it is possible
to
glue strains gages on the handle. If the shape of this handle is not to
complicated, it is possible to acheive forces and torques, if not, you
will
have only the frequencies.

To measure racket frequencies , it is possible also to dispose an
accelerometer stuck on the frame of the racket.

In lab conditions, to standardize the measurement, the grip must be
taken
in a vice and the ball must drop at a known distance.

Best regards

Jean Paul Micallef, PhD
INSERM ADR 08
99 Rue du Puech Villa
France, 34197 Montpellier Cedex 5
Email: biomeca@cnusc.fr






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*****************************************
Dr.-Ing. Thomas Pandorf
Institut fuer Allgemeine Mechanik
Templergraben 64
D-52056 Aachen

phone: ++49-241-804592
fax: ++49-241-8888231
email: pandorf@iam.rwth-aachen.de
*****************************************

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