View Full Version : Propulsive force in swimming

Young-hoo Kwon, Ph.d.
10-28-1999, 08:33 AM
Dear colleagues:

I was recently asked to do an underwater motion analysis of the swimmers to
quantify the propulsive force from the arms and legs. I personally have some
experiences in the underwater motion analysis but it's been limited to
kinematics. Besides, I have used inverse-periscopes, but this time I will
have to use waterproof housings. So I'd like to ask help from the readership
of Biomch-L. I would appreciate it if the members of Biomch-L would provide
me with some valuable info or pointers.

1. References: The references I have located so far are listed below. Any
additional references will be greatly appreciated.

Berger, Hollander, & De Groot (1999). Determining propulsive force in front
crawl swimming: a comparison of two methods. Journal of Sports Sciences 17,

Payton & Bartlett (1995). Estimating propulsive forces in swimming from
three-dimensional kinematic data. Journal of Sports Sciences 13, 447-454.

Schleihauf (1979). A hydrodynamic analysis of swimming propulsion. In
Swimming III (Terauds & Bedingfield Eds.), pp. 79-109, Baltimore, MD:
University Park Press.

Schleihauf, Gray & De Rose (1983). Three-dimensional analysis of hand
propulsion in the sprint front crawl stroke. In Biomechanics and Medicine in
Swimming (Hollander, Huijing & De Groot, Eds.), pp. 173-183. Champaign, IL:
Human Kinetics.

2. Camera location: I have used inverse-periscopes so far, but I'll have to
use waterproof housings this time. Any suggestions in terms of camera
location (distance, depth & angle) for the best digitizing views?

3. Markers: I believe you need several markers on a segment (such as hand)
to quantify the segment orientation. I would welcome any suggestions
regarding markers required to quantify the propulsive force from the hand,
arm and the leg.

4. Programs: Any compiled computer programs or raw codes available?
Preferably in C or C++ (including Visual C++), but anything in Basic
(including VisualBasic) or Fortran is also fine? I don't mind writing my own
program, but I think there is no reason to re-invent the wheel.

5. Precuations, etc: Any relevant suggestions or precautions from your
experience will be greatly appreciated.

As usual, I'll post the summary on Biomch-L. Thanks in advance!

Young-Hoo Kwon
- Young-Hoo Kwon, Ph.D.
- Ball State University
- The Human Performance/Biomechanics Lab.
- Office: +1 (765) 285-5126
- Fax: +1 (765) 285-8596
- E-mail: ykwon@bsu.edu
- URL: http://www.cs.bsu.edu/~ykwon/

To unsubscribe send SIGNOFF BIOMCH-L to LISTSERV@nic.surfnet.nl
For information and archives: http://isb.ri.ccf.org/biomch-l