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03-03-2000, 01:23 AM
Dear List:
Last week I asked subscribers to send me citations of their favorite
articles used in teaching. Articles that provoked discussion, articles
that nicely demonstrated certain principles, etc. The following is a
summary listing of articles plus the articles I originally submitted.
Thanks to all those who contributed.
Jeff Ives

My original list:

Behm, D.G., and Sale, D.G. (1993). Intended rather than actual movement
velocity determines velocity-specific training response. Journal of
Applied Physiology 74(1):359-368.
[Makes students rethink the specificity of training principle]

Ericsson, K.A., Krampe, R.Th., and Tesch-Römer, C. (1993). The role of
deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance.
Psychological Reviews 100(3):363-406.
[Ericsson has shorter versions out in other publications. Makes for a
great discussion on genetics vs. practice for acquiring expertise]

Handford, C., Davids, K., Bennett, S., and Button, C. (1997). Skill
acquisition in sport: some applications of an evolving practice ecology.
Journal of Sports Sciences 15(6):621-640.
[Practical application of dynamical systems theory and discovery learning]

Herzog, W. (1998). Muscle synergies during voluntary movement. In: S
Kornecki (ed.), Studies and Monographs No. 55. The Problem of Muscular
Synergism, with Special Emphasis on Stabilising Functions of Skeletal Muscles.
Proceedings of the XIth International Biomechanics Seminar, Sept. 18-19,
1998, Wroclaw, Poland, pp. 7-22.
[A tough read for students, but a great discussion section. Discusses how the
soleus, plantaris, gastroc (cats) contribute differently based on how a
movement is performed. Helps students answer question as to why all those
toe-raises didn't help vertical jump height!]

Hewett, T.E., Stroupe, A.L., Nance, T.A., and Noyes, F.R. (1996).
Plyometric training in female athletes. Decreased impact forces and
increased hamstring torques. American Journal of Sports Medicine
[In other words, why training should be thought of as practice]

Wilson, GJ et al. (1993). The optimal training load for the development
of dynamic athletic performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and
Exercise. 25(11): 1279-1286.
[Makes students rethink plyometrics and maximal load strength training]

Yue, G and KJ Cole. (1992). Strength increases from the motor program:
Comparison of training with maximal voluntary and imagined muscle
contractions. Journal of Neurophysiology. 67(5): 1114-1123.
[Gets students to realize that strength is more than muscle size, but a
learned phenomenon as well]
Contributions from others:

Mel Siff's "Puzzles and Paradoxes" in Exercise Science put on this
and other listserves are a good way to get students thinking.
Dr Gideon Ariel has kindly archived many of them on his site at:

At a less demanding level, Siff's book, "Facts & Fallacies of
Fitness" questions many concepts and theories that are often applied as
fact in the more applied world of sport, fitness, rehabilitation and health.
The Table of Contents of this book are at:
Toussaint, H. M., Hollander, A. P., Berg, C. v. d., & Vorontsov, A. (2000).
Biomechanics of swimming. In W. E. Garrett & D. T. Kirkendall (Eds.),
Exercise and Sport Science (pp. 639-660). Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams
& Wilkins.
[I think it provides a nice example of integrating biomechanics and exercise
physiology. For more info on this lab's works see:
Mechanism for reflex reversal during walking in human tibialis anterior
muscle revealed by single motor unit recording. De Serres SJ; Yang JF;
Patrick SK. J Physiol (Lond) 1995 Oct 1;488 ( Pt 1):249-58
[Great example of how a carefully designed experiment (with alternate
hypotheses) gives insight into mechanisms underlying an observed phenomenon.]

The effect of external load on torque production by knee extensors. Otis JC;
Gould JD J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 1986 Jan;68(1):65-70.
[Always a good example of how a biomechanical analysis can be of relevance
to physical therapists or orthopedic surgeons. Based on this paper, I made a
physical model to show that the position of the external load can result in
either the ACL or the PCL experiencingforces during a knee extension exercise.]

Muscle and tendon: properties, models, scaling, and application to
biomechanics and
motor control. Zajac FE, Crit Rev Biomed Eng 1989;17(4):359-411
[Shows how the actions of the calf muscles can cause (a) knee flexion
and ankle flexion, (b) knee extension and ankle extension, or (c)
knee flexion and ankle extension (all depending on the knee angle and
the muscle's lever arms at the knee and ankle). This gets students
away from thinking of the gastrocnemius as an ankle plantarflexor
and/or a knee flexor, and also shows the relevance of analyses of
limb dynamics.]

What muscle variable(s) does the nervous system control in limb movements?
Stein RB. The behavioral and brain sciences, 1982, 5, 535-577.
[A good paper for eliciting a discussion on muscle stiffness, force, length,
velocity etc.]

Knee flexor moments during propulsion in cycling--a creative solution to Lombard's
Paradox. Gregor RJ; Cavanagh PR; LaFortune M: J Biomech 1985;18(5):307-16
[A paradox usually results in a lively discussion. See also reference below.]

Muscle activity in running. Chapter 6 in "Biomechanics of Distance Running" (Peter
R. Cavanagh, editor), pp. 165-186. Human Kinetics
I believe that Human Kinetics is coming out with a book of classic papers in
motor control compiled by Dr. Zatsiorsky at Penn State. I believe this
project is a result of the older BIOMCH-L posting you were referring to.
There are a lot of great papers but here is a gem that is a good read for
most all students:
Hebert, R., Moore, S., Moseley, A., Schurr, K., & Wales, A. (1993). Making
inferences about muscle forces from clinical observations. Australian Journal
of Physiotherapy, 39, 195-202.
This group of articles are intended to illustrate the importance of
including high power/force training in an individuals exercise program, not
for athletes, but for anybody interested in health and maximal function
into old age.

Walmsley B, Hodgson JA, Burke RE. Forces produced by medial gastrocnemius
and soleus muscles during locomotion in freely moving cats. J Neurophysiol.
1978 Sep;41(5):1203-16.
[Illustrates that unless you do something requiring more force/power than
even running, you don't recruit and exercise the top 50% of the motoneuron
pool, and related muscle mass (>50%), assuming motor unit mixture found in
cat MG.]

Lexell J, Taylor CC, Sjostrom M. What is the cause of the ageing atrophy?
Total number, size and proportion of different fiber types studied in whole
vastus lateralis muscle from 15- to 83-year-old men. J Neurol Sci. 1988
[Shows the loss of muscle mass and the loss of type II fiber size, i.e.,
the fibers not being used by most people, that is typical as people age)

Buchner DM, Larson EB, Wagner EH, Koepsell TD, de Lateur BJ. Evidence for a
non-linear relationship between leg strength and gait speed.Age Ageing.
1996 Sep;25(5):386-91.
(Shows that a large and progressive decline in strength can occur before a
critical level of strength is reached and a loss of walking function is

Harridge, Magnusson & Saltin. Life-long endurance trained elderly men have
high aerobic power, but have similar muscle strength to non-active elderly
men. Aging Clin Exp Res, vol 9, no 1-2, pgs 80-87, 1997
[Shows that even high levels of aerobic exercise alone will not prevent age
associated loss of strength]
Jeff Ives, Ph.D.
Dept. of Exercise & Sport Sciences Phone: 607-274-1751
Ithaca College Fax: 607-274-1943
Ithaca, NY 14850 USA Email: jives@ithaca.edu

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