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  • Summary of Responses: POSTURE STANDARDIZATION

    Dear subscribers,
    about one month ago I posted a request about standardization in Posturography. Thanks a lot to all of you who responded.
    The responses I received follow, after my request.

    My impression is that a lot has been written about posturography, but not very much about standardization.
    The problem is still open! I`m very interested in continuing any sort of discussion about this.

    Thanks again


    ******************** MY REQUEST **********************************
    Dear all,
    I'm starting a research project dealing with the methods for measuring the human posture (both static and dynamic) and I would like to have some informations and advices about STANDARDS used to measure posture.
    For example:
    1. methods for quantifying posture and measured variables (STANDARD PARAMETERS: which parameters are mainly used?)
    2. testing protocols (STANDARD PROTOCOLS: e.g. eyes open/closed, distance from visual target, trial durations, feet placement on the plate...)
    3. data processing (hardware/software filtering, acquisition frequency, ...)
    4. acquisition device: which kind of force platform (commercial, self-designed) and technology (strain-gages, piezo)

    Are you aware of previous papers or publications in the field?
    I know the work by Kapteyn et al. which appeared on Agressologie in 1983.
    If you have more specific questions please reply to my e-mail address.
    Thank you very much in advance.

    Laura Rocchi
    Department of Electronics, Computer Science & Systems
    University of Bologna, Italy

    ******************* RESPONSES*****************************************

    Hi Laura

    Let's try to take a quick approach. There are many publications for the many questions that you raised. The best for you might be to start with one of the standard books. Motion Analysis (by Vaughan et al. ??) is excellent and gives you a very good review of methods, standards and problems frequntly encountered. There is also a lot of information in the biomch-l archives about most of the issues raised in the book. Look for the late WOLTRING's publications for standards or papers from the ISB standardisation commitee. The broad information given online by companies like Ariel Dynamics, Peak, Qualisys etc. (look at the yellow pages) will also be a good start. Don't hesitate to contact me if you have any question.

    Dr. Gunther Paul
    FORD Motor Co.
    C214 Package Engineering / R&VT VPS&CE Biomechanics
    Tel int. (870) 34248 ext. (+49) 0221 9034248
    Fax int. (870) 35047 ext. (+49) 0221 9035047
    smail MC-PE31A
    Laura,sorry for the mistake. Not only was the name misspelled, I also actually thought of another book when I sent my reply. The book you need is "Three dimensional analysis of Human Movement". Allard , Stokes, Blanchi, (Eds.)Human Kinetics, Champaign Ill. 1995. ISBN 087322-623-2. Another valuable contribuution to Kinesiology is the Journal "Human Movement Science" from Elsevier Science (by Whiting & Whiting, Eds.).Try the special issues, they are excellent.

    Dr. Gunther Paul

    ************************************************** ********************

    Dear Laura, There is an awful lot of literature in this field.
    A recent review was in the IEEE Transactions on Rehabilitation Engineering Vol 1 pp 26-34 (1993) Prieto et al.
    An other one is by D. Winter in Gait and Posture vol3 : 193-214(1995). Both have a lot of references.
    I have some experience with clinical application of standing balance.
    My opinion is rather negative: you can do a lot of interseting signal analysis, but the clinical relevance is small. Most of the investigators have now turned to studying balance under the influence of disturbanciesGood luck,

    At Hof
    Department of Medical Physiology & Laboratory of Human Movement Analysis AZG
    University of Groningen
    Bloemsingel 10

    Tel: (31) 50 3632645
    Fax: (31) 50 3632751

    ************************************************** ********************

    Buon giorno,
    Read my biblio. Winter's book is a very important reference. For more question, just write me!


    Aymeric Kron

    1. BARIN K. (1989) Evaluation of a generalised model of human postural dynamics and control in the sagittal plane, Biological Cybernetics, vol. 61, p. 37-50.
    2. CADY J., KRON B. (1976) Anatomie du corps humain, PARIS, tome 2, Maloine ed.
    3. DARIUSH B., PARNIANPOUR M., HEMAMI H. (1998) Stability and control strategy of a multilink musculoskeletal model with application in FES, IEEE Transaction on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 45, no 1, p. 3-14.

    10. GOMI H., KAWATO M. (1997) Human arm stiffness and equilibrium-point trajectory during multi-joint movement, Biological Cybernetics, vol. 76, p.163-171.
    11. GRIBBLE P.L., OSTRY D.J. (1996) Origins of the power law relation
    between movement velocity and curvature : modeling the effects of muscle mechanics and limb dynamics, Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 76, No 5, p.2853-2860.
    12. GRIBBLE P.L., OSTRY D.J., SANGUINETI V., LABOISSIÈRE R. (1998) Are complex control signals required for human arm movement?, The American Physiological Society, p. 1409-1424.
    13. GRIBBLE P.L., OSTRY D.J. (1998) Independent coactivation of shoulder and elbow muscles, Exp. Brain res., vol. 123, p. 355-360.
    14. HAIDERI N., STANHOPE S., KEPPLE T. (1998) The relative effectivness of hip and ankle strategies, Gait & Posture, vol 7, p. 163.
    15. IQBAL K., HEMAMI H., SIMON S. (1993) Stability and control of a frontal four-link biped system, IEEE Transaction on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 40 no. 10, p. 1007-1018.
    16. JACOB R. (1997) Control model of human stance using fuzzy logic, Biological Cybernetics, vol. 77, p. 63-70.
    17. KARLSSON A., LANSHAMMAR H. (1997) Analysis of postural sway strategies using an inverted pendulum model and force plate data, Gait & Posture, vol.5, p. 198-203.
    18. KARLSSON A., PERSSON T. (1997) The ankle strategy for postural control; a comparison between a model-based and a marked-based method, Computer Method and Programs in Biomedicine, vol. 52, p. 165-173.
    19. KUO A.D. (1995) An optimal control model for analyzing human posture balance, IEEE Transaction on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 42 no. 1, p. 87-101.
    23. TIAN C.X., HE J. (1997) Simulation study of human posture control under external perturbation, Procedings of the 36th Conference on Decision & Control San Diego California USA Decembre 1997.
    24. WINTER D. (1990) Biomechanics and motor control of human movement,USA, John Wiley and sons, 277 p.
    25. WINTER D.A., AFTAB E.P., PRINCE F., ISHAC M., GIELO-PERCZAK K. (1998)Stiffness control of balance in quiet standing, Journal of Neurophysiology,p.1211-1221.
    26. WINTERS J.M., WOO S.L.Y. (Eds) (1990) Multiple Muscle Systems Biomechanics and Movement Organisation, New York : Springer-Verlag, 801 p.
    27. WOESTYN J. (1977) Étude du mouvement, l'anatomie fonctionelle, PARIS,tome 2, Maloine ed.
    28. YANG J.F., WINTER D.A., WELLS R.P. (1990) Postural dynamic in the standing human, Biological Cybernetics, vol 62, p 309-320.

    ************************************************** ********************

    Hi Laura
    You may wish to check out:
    Goldie, Bach & Evans, Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 1989;70,:510-7
    Goldie, Evans & Bach, Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 1992, 73:348354 (there's also a third paper in this series , same journal, more recent, but I don't have the reference handy)

    ************************************************** ********************
    You may wish to look at the following publication, which came from the Unita Operativa di Geriatria, Istituto Nazionale Ricovero e Cura Anziani, in Florence, Italy:Benvenuti F et al., "Kinematic characteristics of standing disequilibrium: reliability and validity of a posturographic protocol." Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1999 Mar;80(3):278-287.

    John P. Holden, Ph.D.
    National Institutes of Health
    Biomechanics Laboratory
    Bldg 10 Rm 6s-235 MSC 1604
    Bethesda, MD 20892-1604

    ************************************************** ********************

    Laura Rocchi
    University of Bologna, Italy
    ================================================== =========

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