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Summary: Grip Forces

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  • Summary: Grip Forces

    Dear All,

    Thanks for the vast number of responses for my measurement of grip forces in
    cricket batting enquiry. Some 26 references were highlighted, as well as
    technical information from related companies (see below).

    Thanks again,
    Paul Glazier


    Arai, T., Chomabayashi, T. and Momiyama, T. (1995). Compare overstrain
    golf-swing and relaxed golf-swing: relation grip pressure and clubhead speed
    for driver shots. In Proceedings of the FISU/CESU Conference (edited by
    Arai, T.), pp. 362-363. Japan: Fukuoka.

    Budney, D.R. (1979). Measuring grip pressure during the golf swing. Research
    Quarterly, 50, 272-277.

    Budney, D.R. and Bellow, D.G. (1990). Evaluation of golf club control by
    grip pressure measurement. In Science and Golf: Proceedings of the First
    World Scientific Congress of Golf (edited by A.J. Cochran), pp. 30-35.
    London: E&FN Spon.

    Chadwick, E.K.J. and Nicol, A.C. (2000) A novel force transducer for the
    measurement of grip force. Journal of Biomechanics, in press.

    Chadwick, E.K.J., Nicol, A.C., Floyd, S. and Gray, T.G.F. (2000). A
    telemetry-based device to determine the force-displacement behaviour of
    materials in high impact loading situations. Journal of Biomechanics, 33,

    Chadwick, E.K.J. and Nicol, A.C. (1996). Hand grip forces during activities
    of daily living and light industrial duties. In Proceedings of the Xth
    European Society of Biomechanics Conference (edited by J. Vander Sloten),
    pp. 222. Leuven: European Society of Biomechanics.

    Cole, K.J. (1991). Grasp force control in older adults. Journal of Motor
    Behavior, 24, 251-258.

    Cole, K.J and Beck, C.L. (1994). The stability of precision grip force in
    older adults. Journal of Motor Behavior, 26, 171-177.

    Eggeman, G. and L. Noble. (1982) Measurement system for the determination of
    hand grip forces during a baseball bat swing. American Society of Mechanical
    Engineers, Manuscript #82-Det-49, September.

    Eggeman, G. and L. Noble. (1982) Baseball bat instrumentation for the
    measurement of hand forces. Journal of Biomechanics, November.

    Elliott, B.C. (1982). Tennis: the influence of grip tightness on reaction
    impulse and rebound velocity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise,
    14, 348-352.

    Fowler, N.K. & Nicol, A.C. (1999). Measurement of external three-dimensional
    interphalangeal loads applied during activities of daily living. Clinical
    Biomechanics, 14, 646-652.

    Fowler, N.K. & Nicol, A.C. (1999). A force transducer to measure individual
    finger loads during activities of daily living. Journal of Biomechanics, 32,

    Hatze, H. (1992). The effectiveness of grip bands in reducing racquet
    vibration transfer and slipping. Medicine and Science in Sports and
    Exercise, 24, 226-230.

    Hatze, H. (1976). Forces and duration of impact, and grip tightness during
    the tennis stroke. Medicine and Science in Sports, 8, 88-95.

    Knudson, D.V, & White, S.C. (1989). Forces on the hand in the tennis
    forehand drive: Application of force sensing resistors. International
    Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 5, 324-331.

    Knudson, D. V. (1989). Hand forces and impact effectiveness in the tennis
    forehand. Journal of Human Movement Studies, 17, 1-7.

    Knudson, D.V. (1991). Forces on the hand in the tennis one-handed backhand.
    International Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 7, 282-292.

    Knudson, D. (1991). Factors affecting force loading on the hand in the
    tennis forehand. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 31,

    Martin, P.E., & Heise, G.D. (1992). Archery bow grip force distribution:
    Relationships with performance and fatigue. International Journal of Sport
    Biomechanics, 8, 305-319.

    Miles, A.W. & Tanner, K.E. (1992). Strain Measurement in Biomechanics.
    London: Chapman & Hall.

    Newell, K.M and McDonald, P.V. (1994). Information, co-ordination modes and
    control in a prehensile force task. Human Movement Science, 13, 375-391.

    Richards, J., Farrell, M., Kent, J. and Kraft, R. (1985). Weight transfer
    patterns during the golf swing. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport,
    56, 361-365.

    Stretch, R.A. (1995). A biomechanical analysis of the double-handed grip
    forces. In Science and Racket Sports (edited by T. Reilly, M.Hughes and A.
    Lees), pp. 107-112. London: E & FN Spon.

    Stretch, R.A., Buys, F.J. and Viljoen, G. (1995). The kinetics of the drive
    off the front foot in cricket batting: hand grip force. S.A. Journal for
    Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation, 18, 83-93.

    Yun, M.H., Kotani, K., & Ellis, D. (1992). Using force sensitive resistors
    to evaluate hand tool grip design. Proceedings of the Human Factors
    Society, 36th Annual Meeting. pp. 806-810.

    The company I run the office in the UK for is novel, one of the leaders in
    dynamic pressure distribution measurements. A similar application to the one

    you describe has been made years ago for measuring the forces acting on the
    grip of a tennis racket, and consists in a sensor pad with 256 capacitive
    sensors ordered as a 16x16 matrix, with a density of 1.6 sensors/cm² for a
    total pad area of 125x125 mm. (See attachment for more details). More
    information about pressure distribution can be found at

    As far as references related to this kind of measurement are concerned, I
    recommend to contact Prof. Ewald Hennig in Germany at the following address:

    University of Essen
    Biomechanic Laboratory
    Fachbereich II
    Henri - Dunant Strasse 65
    45131 Essen
    Fax: +49 (0) 201 183 7309

    I hope this can bring your work forward, and if you need further information

    please do not hesitate to contact me again.


    Gabriella Atzori

    Please look into our web site regarding the HGD/PFD project and devices.
    If you find it interesting for your application, please do not hesitate to
    contact me for further details.
    Best regards.

    Alessandro Donati
    P.zza 185 R.A. Folgore, 2/3
    57128 Livorno
    Tel. +39-0586-876.111
    Fax +39-0586-876.208
    E-mail :

    Have a look at the flexi force sensors from Tekscan

    As for the impact force try a balistic pendulum.

    We have done a lot of work on impact if you want to pop down the



    Dr. Paul O'Callaghan
    Medical Engineering
    Cardiff University
    PO Box 685 The Parade
    Queens Buildings
    CF24 3TA

    Tel: (0)2920 874533
    Fax: (0)2920 874533

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