Dear Biomech-L members,

Dynamic fracture forces of most body parts, as related to motor vehicle, is
well documented in the literature (e.g. SAE reports). For instance, the
force necessary to fracture the femur is generally determined from
biomechanical testing where impact is delivered longitudinally through a
flexed knee.

*** Here is now my request:

As opposed to the experiments carried out in the automobile industry, where
long bones are loaded longitudinally, I am interested in knowing how much
force (or energy) is needed to fracture the long bones of the limbs as a
result of blunt impact delivered in a transversal manner (perpendicular to
the bone shaft). Malicious kicks to the tibia and bat blows on the forearm
during violent assaults are two examples among others where such forces may
be applied.

Any information would be much appreciated and, of course, I will post a
summary of the responses.


Ismael El Maach

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