REGARDING shoulder cross sectional areas
Dear Readers:
Regarding Mark Grabiner's posting requesting information on the latissimus
dorsi physiological cross sectional area. Please see:

Veeger H.E.J. et al: Inertia and Muscle Contraction Parameters for
Musculoskeletal modelling of the shoulder mechanism. J. Biomech 24:615-629,

Table 2 in this paper lists physiological cross-sections of many shoulder
muscles (including lat. dorsi) as obtained in that study and compared to
several others. For lat. dorsi, they obtain 8.64cm2. They also report values
ranging from 5.8 to 12.9cm2 from other referenced studies. Please contact me
if you need additional information.

Good luck,
Lou Soslowsky
University of Michigan