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Summary: limb dominance (posted 16-07-02)

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  • Summary: limb dominance (posted 16-07-02)

    Thank you to all those who responded.

    Message posted 16/07/02:

    "message to: Biomech-L subscribers

    I am searching for any research relating to the influence of limb dominance
    on kinetics, kinematics and muscle function during running (and also cycling
    as a lesser priority).

    Few studies make any note of dominance, or collect data from only dominant
    limbs as determined by a simple functional task such as kicking a ball,
    without offering any scientific justification for analysing data from only
    one limb.

    The notion of leg dominance is certainly clouded by the conflicting
    functional demands placed upon the lower limb (Gabbard & Hart, 1996); i.e.
    the demand for both mobility and stability, and thus the predominant
    bilateral context in which most lower limb tasks are performed. As a result,
    the literature is equivocal and contradictory as to which parameters
    indicate dominance and how it can be determined. In sum, limb dominance can
    be viewed from three different aspects (Clerke & Clerke, 2001):
    -The relative preference for one limb in the execution of a unilateral task
    (Annett, 1970; Peters, 1998);
    -The greater skilfulness of one hand or leg in the performance of a tasks
    (Gabbard & Hart, 1996; Peters, 1998);
    -The greater strength and/or endurance of one limb, hand or foot (Bowman &
    Katz, 1984; Chau et al., 1997; Dias, Bhowal, Wildin, & Thompson, 2001).

    Limb dominance effects has been related to a number of lower limb injuries,
    such as stress fractures. Thus, I am interested to read any studies that
    have investigated within-subject between-limb differences in kinetics,
    kinematics and muscle function during running or cycling.

    Summary of responses to be posted."
    I wanted to let you know that I will be doing a study (actually a collection
    of normal data) of 9-17 year olds to establish normal parameters for a 5-hop
    test (each leg)as well as vertical jump (each leg and both). Rob Newton, my
    advisor (an Aussie), suggested this, as there is no data for those ages. I
    will be reporting values by limb dominance vs. either age or a weight/height
    ratio. Working with children through puberty makes age grouping a concern,
    at least to me.

    Dr. Newton thinks it is a good candidate for publication, given the lack of
    current data. Rob is not going to be around this fall however (he's coming
    to Australia to set up a satellite campus), so Brenden Humphries (another
    Aussie!!) will be advising me most of the time. I throw those names out
    mainly because I know Rob has a reputation throughout the world in
    biomechanics and Brenden was one of his students.

    My data should help to predict when an athlete may return to play,
    especially after an ACL and eventually may be helpful in predicting
    susceptibility to ACL or other injury.

    I would be interested in whatever information you receive from other list

    Steve Coffman
    Masters degree candidate May 2003
    Sports Biomechanics
    Ball State University Muncie Indiana USA
    I have been doing some work recently related to bilateral asymmetries of the
    lower extremity when performing a symmetrical lifting task. We performed a
    literature review that extended beyond lifting due to the relative lack of
    information in the area. Included here are the references we found that are
    related to running and cycling. We also have a bunch more related to gait
    if you are interested. Any chance I could get the complete references to
    the articles you used in your Biomech-L posting? Some of those are not
    familiar to me.

    Cavanagh, P. (1987) The Biomechanics of Lower Extremity Action in Distance
    Running. Journal of American Orthopedic Foot Society, vol. 7 no. 4, 197-217.

    Daly, D. & Cavanagh, P. (1976) Asymmetry in Bicycle Ergometer Pedalling,
    Medicine and Science in Sports, vol. 8 no 3, 204-208.

    Hamill, J., Bates, B., & Knutzen, K. (1984) Ground Reaction Force Symmetry
    during Walking and Running. Research Quarterly for Exercise Sport, vol. 55
    no. 3, 289-293.

    Hintermeister, R., Hamill, J., & Slavin, M. (1991) Is the Assumption of
    Symmetry for Power Calculations in Running Valid?. International Symposium
    on Biomechanics in Sports: 9th: 1991 Iowa State University. 61-65.

    Smak, W., Neptune, R. & Hull, M. (1999) The Influence of Pedaling Rate on
    Bilateral Asymmetry in Cycling. Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 32, 899-906.

    Vagenas, G. & Hoshizaki, B. (1988) Evaluation of Rearfoot Asymmetries in
    Running with Worn and New Running Shoes. International Journal of Sport
    Biomechanics, vol. 4, 220-230.

    Vagenas, G. & Hoshizaki, B. (1992) A Multivariable Analysis of Lower
    Extremity Kinematic Asymmetry in Running. International Journal of Sport
    Biomechanics, vol. 8, 11-29.

    Thanks in advance,

    Raoul F. Reiser, II. PhD, CSCS
    Health & Exercise Science
    Colorado State University
    Fort Collins, CO 80523
    You might be interested to see the few following papers. It might help you.

    Sadeghi H, Allard P, Duhaime M. (2000). Contributions of lower limb muscle
    power in gait of people without impairments. Physical Therapy 80(12): 1188-

    Sadeghi H, Allard P, Prince F, Labelle H. (2000). Gait symmetry and limb
    dominance in able-bodied gait. Gait & Posture 12(1): 34-45.

    Allard P, Lachance R, Aissaoui R, Sadeghi H, Duhaime H. (1998). Men and
    able-bodied gait. In: Three-dimensional analysis of human locomotion. Edited
    Allard P, Cappozzo A, Lundberg A and Vaughan CL. John Wiley and Sons p:

    Sadeghi H, Allard P, Duhaime M. (1997). Functional gait asymmetry in able-
    bodied subjects. Human Movement Science 16: 243-258.

    Good luck
    Heydar Sadeghi., Ph.D.,
    Research Center
    Sainte Justine Hospital
    Montreal, PQ
    You may have some luck looking into bilateral asymmetry research rather than
    limb dominance and there should be a few references in the developmental
    literature. For example Sutherland et al. (1980, J Bone and Joint Surg. 62A,
    336-353) looked at the development of mature gait which usually includes
    some assessment of bilateral symmetry.

    Daly and Cavanagh (1976) also reported on bilateral asymmetry in cycling
    (Med Sci Sports, 8, 204-208).

    Hope these suggestions help
    Nick Brown
    Although it does not focus on running or cycling, an nice review of
    symmetry/limb dominance during gait is:

    Sadeghi H, Allard P, Prince F, Labelle H. Symmetry and limb dominance in
    able-bodied gait: a review
    Gait and Posture 12 (2000) 34-45.

    Hope this helps,

    Michael Madigan, PhD
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
    Engineering Science and Mechanics - MC 0219
    Blacksburg, VA 24061
    phone: (540) 231-1215
    fax: (540) 231-4574
    check out the following:

    Hintermeister, RA, J Hamill, MM Slavin, Is the Assumption of Symmetry
    for Power Calculations in Running Valid? Int Soc for Biomech in Sports
    (ISBS), Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, August, 1991.

    This provided scientific justification for collecting kinematic data from
    only one side in running.

    Hope it helps,

    Robert Hintermeister, PhD, FACSM
    Andrew Chapman
    PhD Candidate
    Department of Physiotherapy
    The University of Queensland
    St. Lucia, 4072, QLD, Australia.


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    Australian Institute of Sport
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    Belconnen, 2616, ACT, Australia.

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