On the 4th of May I posted a help plea, asking for
references about the anthropometry of the main joint centers of
the body, namely the estimated position of joint centers relative
to conventional bony landmarks. I thank you very much for the
many replies.

I summarized herein the replies I received, for your
convenience, with my own comments within square brackets. I also
added a description of the only source I had found before posting
my plea (Chandler et al., 1975). I hope this summary will be of
help for someone else.

I hope I'll be able in the future to help someone of you as
much as you helped me. Thanks again,

Paolo de Leva
Sport Biomechanics Lab.
I.S.E.F. of Rome.

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ +++++++++++++++

The book "Dynamics of Human Gait" by C.L. Vaughan et al, Human
Kinetics may help you...

Aurelio Cappozzo


Try Plagenhoef, Stanley (1971) Patterns of Human Motion: a
cinematographic analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall

Dr. David Webb

[This book includes drawings where the position of some joint
centers is shown relative to adjacent bony landmarks, and the
relevant longitudinal distances are reported. However, the
position of the hip joint center is indicated relative to the
most lateral point of the great trochanter, which is not a
conventional bony landmark, since anthropometrists use the
trochanterion, defined as the highest point of the trochanter.]


..as best as I can recall, there was an article or two on
anthropometry which utilized joint center landmarks in the Czech
journal ANTHROPOLOGIE (Prague), sometime around the early to
mid-1980s. Sorry that I can't be of more help.

Gary Heathcote, Anthropology Program,
University of Guam


Dempster,W.T. (1955). Space requirements of the seated operator,
Technical report WADC-TR-55-159
Wright -Patterson Airforce Base,Ohio
(...I think that most of the anthropometric computer manikins are
based on that work).

Johan Molenbroek
Lecturer Engineering Anthropometry
Delft University of Technology
(-From: Johan Molenbroek )

[I have a copy of this report, and it contains a huge amount of
information about joint centers, and other topics, but it does
not report the estimated distance of joint centers from bony
landmarks, although a table of distances between adjacent joint
centers is included ("link dimensions", p.124), and a pattern for
locating "nominal" joint centers on the living is also suggested
(p.123). Dempster described and used several different methods to
determine the position of joint centers in living subjects and
cadaver joints. The main conclusion was that instantaneous joint
centers markedly change their position depending on the angle the
relevant segments are forming at a given instant of their
rotation with respect to each other. Therefore, it's impossible
to locate a unique joint center for each joint. Nevertheless,
"nominal" joint centers were tentatively defined, on the base of
the available data, at page 123].

With kind regards,

Paolo de Leva