Hello members,

I hereby bring you the summary of replies for my question from March 19th on gait analysis on swine. For your orientation my original posting sounded as follows:

For my Ph.D. I'm doing a biomechanical analysis of the locomotion of pigs
on different surfaces with special focus on slipping. I'll be combining
video recordings with force plate measurements.
In my literature searches I have come across a lot of equine research
(Drevemo, Hjerten, Holmström, Barrey, Back, Merkens, Schamhardt, Leach and
others) a little on dogs (DeCamp, Hottinger and others), and a bit on cattle
(Phillips, Morris, Telezhenko), but I haven't found anything with swine as
biomechanic subject animals.
For the moment I'm working on a verification of joint rotation centres of
both forelimb (shoulder, elbow, carpal, fetlock) and hindlimb (hip, stifle,
tarsal, and fetlock).
I'm interested in getting in contact with others that use swine as model
animals for biomechanical research, and also maybe learn about references
that discuss the joint rotation centres in detail.

I would like to thank those who responded to my question. It seems that not many are researching the area of swine biomechanics, as only two of the responses directly concerned swine.

The responses were:

>From Johann Meierl, Institut fuer Tieranatomie der Universitaet Muenchen:
I am turning to you on behalf of the email you submitted to Biomech-L. I
am a veterinarian and I think this is a valuable and important study you
are undertaking. But I have to admit that I cannot give you any further
hints on literature concerning gait analysis in swine.
The reason why I turn to you is that I wanted to ask you whether it
would be possible to get the cattle gait analysis citations you have
I appreciate your efforts on my behalf and would like to thank you very
much in advance.

>From Vincent Bels, Centre Agronomique de Recherches Appliquées du Hainaut:
We are working on the behaviour of pigs in different conditions and begun a
kinematic study of locomotion of pigs on hard substratum (cement) and soft
litter . We are using high-speed video camera (NAC-500) and image analysis
based on frame grabbing with imageproplus.
For different reasons, we have not yet go further into our analysis, but
would be interested by any contact

>From John Polk, Harvard University:
I've recently run a few young pigs on treadmills recently to collect joint
angle and limb movement data on their hindlimbs during walking and
trotting. I would recommend using very young pigs as they will be easier
to train and will be more manageable than adults. We've found sheep to be
far more tractable as research subjects and treadmill runners. Best of
luck with your research, I look forward to your summary.

>From Ken Soltz, Tekscan:
A colleague of mine who is on the Biomechanics list passed along your
question. I have forwarded some articles (attached) which discuss the use of pressure
plates in swine research. They are all using a pressure mapping tool made by my company, Tekscan.

(Ken attached four articles, two of which concerned horses, one concerned cats, and the last concerned sheep. Below I bring you the reference on the sheep article)

Barber-D, Arnold-W, Song-Y, Felt-J, Martin-T (2000): Gait analysis for assessment of loading in the ovine model: Test method development. 46th Annual Meeting, Orthopaedic Research Society, March 12-15, Orlando, Florida.

Thank you again to the respondents.
Kind regards
Vivi M. Thorup
M.sc., Ph.D.-student
Department of Animal Health and Welfare
Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences
Research Centre Foulum
P.O. Box 50
DK-8830 Tjele
Tel. +45 8999 1528
Fax +45 8999 1500

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