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Summary of Responses-Squats

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  • Summary of Responses-Squats

    Hello, the following are the responses that I receive to my questions regarding
    squats. The original question is stated and the responses follow. I did receive
    a response from Dr. Sue Ann Sisto who has done extensive work with squats. She
    works through Kessler in West Orange. She has done research related to my
    question but hasn’t calculate all the data to get final outcomes. Her research
    looked at self-selected squats and intervention of proper squat techniques. She
    also looked at the effects of external rotation of the legs during the squat.
    Her email is

    Thank you for all responses.
    Lynn Curtis
    Graduate Student
    Seton Hall University

    >I am a graduate student at Seton Hall University. I am interested in studying
    >forces at the knee joint during a squat. I have found a lot of articles related
    >to the forces at the patellofemoral joint and tibiofemoral joint during a
    >squat. I am looking for articles that look at the technical aspects of how a
    >squat is performed in terms of keeping the knee so that it stays behind the
    >tips of the toes during a squat and if that makes any difference on forces at
    >the knee. In addition, if anyone knows of different search engines that I might
    >use to gather further information on the subject I would appreciate if you let
    >me know.
    >Lynn Curtis
    >Graduate Student
    >Seton Hall University.

    Actually Lynn, this is exactly the study Dr. Fleisig and myself would like
    to do next. You are right, there is no data out there, and I'm very
    interested in this topic as well. There is very limited data from B.G.
    Ariel entitled "Biomechanical analysis of the knee joint during deep knee
    bends with heavy load", published in Biomechanics IV, Vol 1, Nelson &
    Morehouse eds, Baltimore: University Park Press, pp 44-52, 1974), in which
    Ariel states that "the forward movement of the knees while the subject
    performed the squat was associated with the greatest shearing force".
    However, this really doesn't explain or define what is meant by a shearing
    force, and no statistically comparison between those who had anterior knee
    movement beyond the toes and those who did not. Empirically, it seems
    shearing forces are greatest (the knees hurt!!) the further the knees move
    anterior (e.g., sissy squats done by bodybuilders), but this must be
    validated experientially. Sorry I'm not more help. Maybe in the next year
    I'll do this study.

    Rafael Escamilla, Ph.D., P.T., C.S.C.S.

    California State University, Sacramento

    Department of Physical Therapy


    Dear Lynn

    This is an old article but it may be informative. It gives realistic patellar
    tendon forces during a clean and jerk ( which goes into about 90 deg flexion
    during the jerk phase. The magnitudes were later confirmed by the work the
    Butler/Noyes/Grood did with 1/3 patellar tendon grafts with young doctors.

    Zernicke, R. F., Garhammer, J. J. , and Jobe, F. W. Human patellar tendon
    rupture: A kinetic analysis. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 59A: 179-183,


    Ron Zernicke
    University of Calgary


    Here’s the article you want:
    Escamilla RF, Fleisig GS, Zheng N, Lander JE, Barrentine SW, Andrews, Bergemann
    BW, Moorman CT. Effects of technique variations on knee biomechanics during
    the squat and leg press. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 33(9) : 1552-

    - Glenn

    Glenn S. Fleisig, Ph. D., Smith & Nephew Chair of Research
    American Sports Medicine Institute
    1313 13th Street South
    Birmingham, AL 35205
    (tele) 205-918-2139
    (fax) 205-918-0800


    I would suggest contacting the National Strength & Conditioning Association
    (NSCA). Their website is a great resource.

    Another resource is your local Athletic Trainers. There is typically a
    Strength & Conditioning Specialist on staff in most atheletic training rooms.
    Barring that, any Certified Athletic Trainer should be able to answer your

    Gary Christopher
    MS, ATC


    Refer to Dr. Escamilla’s work. He is formerly of Duke University and at CSU,

    MSSE Vol. 33, No. 9 2001 1552-1566
    MSSE Vol. 1, No. 1 2001 127-141

    These two articles should get you started in the right direction, especially
    the first on the list. If you need further assistance, please do not hesitate
    to contact me via email.

    Good Luck,
    Jeff Casebolt

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