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Passive moments at elbow joint

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  • Passive moments at elbow joint

    Dear Sirs,

    I am working on my PhD on the Control System Laboratory
    of the Mechanical Engineering Department of the National
    Technical Universoty of Athens, Greece.

    I am working on a dynamic model of the
    human forearm-arm, concerning the flexion-extension of
    the elbow joint.

    As I have seen on a paper I should include passive moment
    for the elbow joint, which is calculated by the following

    M(q) = Ko*q + bo*q_dot + k1*(exp(K2*q) -1)

    where q = angle of joint
    q_dot = velocity (=dq/dt)

    I wonder if it is critical to be added, and where
    can I fing those parameters: Ko, K1, K2, bo

    This formula is presented in the following paper:

    Winters, J. M. and Stark, L. (1985) Analysis of fundamental human movements patterns
    through the use of in-depth antagonistic muscle models. IEEE Trans. biomed. Engng 32,

    I would be very gratefull if anyone can send me this paper
    in pdf format, or advice me of this passive moment, and the
    significance of its existance in a dynamic model.

    The equation of the model that I have already developed is just
    the following, without any friction parts:

    (I+m*d^2)*q_ddot + m*g*d*cos(q) = M

    where I : moment of inertia with respect to elbow joint
    d : the distance between the joint and the center of mass
    of the forearm+hand
    q : the angle of joint
    q_ddot : second derivative of angle q
    m : mass of forearm+hand
    g : gravity
    M : torque produced by the muscle force

    Thank you in advance for your replies,

    Panagiotis Artemiadis

    Panagiotis K. Artemiadis
    PhD Candidate
    Control Systems Laboratory
    Mechanical Eng. Dept
    National Technical University of Athens
    9 Heroon Polytechniou Str.,
    Zografou Athens 15700, Greece
    Phone : ++30 - 210 - 7723656

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