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  • Posting of Responses - snowboard resources

    John Farr

    Maybe this will help:

    Kinematics Measurements of Snowboarders' Ankles

    FASTRAK, with four six-degree-of-freedom position sensors, was
    converted into a fully portable system operating on two 12-volt batteries
    and connected to laptop computer. The sensors were attached to the shanks
    and feet of a snowboarder.

    Hazel Turner
    Hi -

    I don't know much about the area myself, but your email reminded me of a
    paper submitted to a conference I attended last year:

    "Rotation of the Ankle Joint Complex in Snowboarding"
    Delorme,S, Tavoularis,S, Lamontagne,M.

    The conference was the IASTED international conference on Biomechanics 2003
    in Rhodes, Greece.

    The Authors were from the University of Ottowa, Canada.

    The best bet is probably to contact the authors directly, as they might be
    able to provide more than the abstract in the proceedings (although it is a
    5 page abstract with quite a lot of detail), and presumably know more about
    what work has been done in this area.

    If you can't find anything else, let me know and I can send you a (dodgy!)
    copy of that abstract from my copy of the proceedings.

    The basis of the paper is testing whether stiffer boots would reduce

    Hope this is of some use to you.

    Good luck!

    Hazel Turner

    Andrea Tami
    I'm a post-doc in biomedical engineering at the Case Western Reserve University
    in Cleveland. I'm originally from Switzerland and I'm also a snow-board
    instructor. The topic of your dissertation project sounds very interesting.
    I'll see if I can find some material for your research from friends back home,
    but I cannot promise a lot, especially regarding basic biomechanics.
    Last year I got exposed to some teaching here in Ohio and I noticed some
    differences between the "American" and the "Swiss" methods. I'm planning to do
    more this year and to participate to courses, so that I can figure out if it is
    a "local" (i.e. "Ohioan") thing, or if the American and Swiss/European teaching
    are indeed based on different body movements. I'll let you know what I find
    Would it be possible for me to have a copy of your project when you are done?

    have a nice day,

    I just did a quick MedLine search on the keyword "snowboard" and found 56
    entries, all but one focusing on injuries related to snowboarding. I've
    attached the only title that looked at all helpful to you however it's in
    German which you may have better luck getting a hold of than I. Based on my
    quick search, it does not appear much has been done in the area of biomechanics
    (though there has been plenty in skiing. There was an interesting one by C.F.
    Ettlinger et al entitled "A Method to Help Reduce the Risk of Serious Knee
    Sprains Incurred in Alpine Skiing." Perhaps some of the methods might be
    useful to you despite the differences in technique.)

    Dingerkus ML. Imhoff A. Hipp E. [Snowboard sports technique, injury pattern,
    prevention].[erratum appears in Fortschr Med 1997 Mar 30;115(9):43]. [Review]
    [16 refs] [German] [Journal Article. Review. Review, Tutorial] Fortschritte der
    Medizin. 115(5):26-8, 30-1, 1997 Feb 20.

    Hopefully you'll find more helpful responses. Good luck.

    Lisa Case
    Graduate Student Research Assistant
    Biomechanics Research Lab
    University of Michigan

    Ronald Burger
    my name is ronald burger. i'm a assistant at the university of mainz in
    germany. (one of) my (main-) research project is the method to teaching
    snowboarding with the help of biomechanics. so i have wrote different papers
    in german-language about this problem.
    in this papers i sign the way from the psychological interest of the boarder
    (flow-event) to a research with 100Hz kinematografy from turns of 5 boarders
    with a high level license on the stubaital-gletscher (?).
    all older studies i was finding, desrcribe the turns with hardboots on
    the next paper design the biomechanical methodology of learning-steps.
    at the next weekend i have a keynote about a new teaching plan for skiing
    and boarding.
    best regards

    Dr. sportwiss. Ronald Burger
    Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
    Fachbereich Sport
    Abt.: Trainings- und Bewegungswissenschaft
    Albert Schweitzer-Straße 22
    55099 Mainz

    Don Hoover
    I would start with the proceedings of the recent biomechanics conference
    held at the University of California-Davis. I saw a handful of titles
    (ie, the friction of snow, etc) that would give you a foundation to get
    started. I'll forward the link in the event that you didn't see it last



    You should try looking at the conference presentations at this years
    Canadian Society for biomechanics in Halifax, it was held in August. One
    of the presentations had to do with snowboarding. Another place you
    could try is and check the masters thesis
    and undergrad projects that we post there, i think one had to do with
    snowboarding but i'm not sure.

    good luck!

    Andrew Post

    F Borg
    I have not come across biomechanical snowboard stuff that i can recall,
    but the other day i was playing aorund with our force plate here when a
    guy passsing by got interested. He thought the system could be used to
    teach his kids how to stear the board (shifiting weight etc). I hade
    made a system which showed the COP (center of pressure) in real time on
    the wall (using a video projector). This can be used a as a feedback
    system. So one idea could be to investigate the use of force plates for
    some aspects of the snowboard training.

    Regards Frank B

    Tom Coeckelberghs
    The professor who helped me with my paper has forwarded your mail to me.
    My name is Tom Coeckelberghs. I work for the Belgian Snowboard
    Federation. I organise events, contests and snowboarding education. I've
    studied at the University of Leuven where I graduated in 1999. My
    research paper was all about snowboarding for the same reasons as you. I
    compared muscle activity in freestyle and slalom snowboarding for
    muscles of the legs (gastrocnemius, restus femoris, vastus medialis and
    lateralis, tibialis anterior and biceps femoris). I compared rear leg
    with front leg, frontside and backside turn, in slalom (hard boots and
    narrow board) and freestyle (soft boots with flexible and large board).
    I used one particular technique for both snowboard styles (In English I
    would call it "stretch-turn"). I used EMG signals of the selected
    muscles and used a little machine to measure the knee angle. Based on
    those results I divided the back and frontside turns in different
    phases. I think the article was not bad because I went to San Fransisco
    for a congress of sports biomechanics where I had a poster session about
    my paper. Of course, only the young scientists were interested in
    snowboarding... but who cares, it was a free holiday.
    A few of my friends who graduated the year after me did also a little
    investigation about snowboarding.
    If you want, I can search the articles and send them to you, either by
    mail or post? OK?

    With kind regards,

    Adam Henderson
    I am also a student in the field of biomechanics and a former snowboard
    instructor. I am very interested in hearing anything that people report
    back to you.

    This summer at the Canadian Society for Biomechanics there was a
    presentation on simulated snowboarding landings by
    Uwe Kersting, from the University of Auckland. It was interesting to
    see some work on the biomechanics of snowboarding. Here is a copy of
    the abstract.

    David P. Dillard"
    Here are some citations that may prove useful to you. A significant
    portion of the literature having to do with snowboarding has to do with
    injuries that is in the direction of biomechanics and snowboarding.

    Please pardon duplication of citations. I tried to catch these, but
    as several resources were consulted, some duplicate citations may
    have slipped through.

    Bladin C. McCrory P. Pogorzelski A.
    Snowboarding injuries : current trends and future directions.
    Sports Medicine.
    34(2):133-9, 2004.

    Richards DP. Clark P. Howard A.
    Multiple spine fractures in an adolescent snowboarder: case report.
    Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care.
    50(4):730-2, 2001 Apr.

    Staebler MP. Moore DC. Akelman E. Weiss AP. Fadale PD. Crisco JJ 3rd.
    The effect of wrist guards on bone strain in the distal forearm.
    American Journal of Sports Medicine.
    27(4):500-6, 1999 Jul-Aug.

    Estes M. Wang E. Hull ML.
    Analysis of ankle deflection during a forward fall in snowboarding.
    Journal of Biomechanical Engineering.
    121(2):243-8, 1999 Apr.

    Biasca N. Battaglia H. Simmen HP. Disler P. Trentz O.
    [An overview of snow-boarding injuries].

    98(1):33-9, 1995 Jan.

    Robinson M.
    Hazards of alpine sport.
    Australian Family Physician.
    20(7):961-2, 965-6, 970, 1991 Jul.

    Ross JA.
    Winter sports medicine and the podiatrist...
    first in a seven-part sports podiatry series.
    Podiatry Management.
    22(8):63-4, 66, 68-70, 2003 Oct.

    Funk JR. Srinivasan SCM. Crandall JR.
    Snowboarder's talus fractures experimentally produced by
    eversion and dorsiflexion.
    American Journal of Sports Medicine.
    31(6):921-8, 2003 Nov-Dec.

    Petrofsky J. Meyer J. Magsino R. Zook S. Kao JK. Laymon M.
    Biomechanics in physically disabled monoskiers versus
    conventional downhill skiers and snowboarders.
    Journal of Applied Research.
    3(2):124-36, 2003 Spring. (39 ref 3 bib)

    Petrofsky J. Magsino R. Zook S. Kao JK. Meyer J. Laymon M.
    Energy expenditure of disabled vs non-disabled skiers.
    British Journal of Therapy & Rehabilitation.
    10(2):65-71, 2003 Feb.

    Laskowski ER. Snow skiing.
    Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America.
    10(1):189-211, 1999 Feb.

    Pier J. The biomechanics of skiing injuries.
    Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: State of the Art Reviews.
    11(3):587-610, 1997 Oct.

    Hart, L.
    Get wise to basic mechanics of snowboarding.
    Pro rider ,
    Winter 2002, 28-30;32;34;56

    Colorado snowboarding injury study: eight year results
    Janes, Peter C.
    Abbott, Paul Jr.
    ASTM Special Technical Publication
    n 1345, Apr, 1999, p 141-149

    Risk factors in skiing and snowboarding in Austria
    Boldrino, Christian (Rosehn); Furian, Gerald
    ASTM Special Technical Publication
    n 1345, Apr, 1999, p 166-174

    Loads transmitted in the practice of snowboarding
    Bally, Alexis
    Taverney, Olivier
    ASTM Special Technical Publication
    n 1266, Mar, 1996, p 196-205

    Epidemiology of snowboarding injuries: 1988 to 1995
    Shealy, Jasper E.
    Ettlinger, Carl F.;
    Buonomo, Vincenzo
    ASTM Special Technical Publication
    v 1289, May, 1997, p 49-59

    Snowboarding injuries
    Janes, Peter C.
    Fincken, Gerald T.
    ASTM Special Technical Publication
    n 1182, 1993, p 255-261

    Age and gender: two epidemiological factors in skiing and
    snowboarding injury
    Cadman, Robert
    Macnab, Andrew J.
    ASTM Special Technical Publication
    n 1266, Mar, 1996, p 58-65

    Relationship between time course of Ruffier index and
    stress-dependent heart rate during eight days of
    Hofmann, Peter
    Stockinger, Bernhard
    ASTM Special Technical Publication
    n 1266, Mar, 1996, p 311-319

    Rotation of the ankle joint complex in snowboarding
    Delorme, S.
    Tavoularis, S.
    Lamontagne, M.
    Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference on
    Biomechanics, 2003,
    p 210-214

    Rates and modalities of death in the U.S.:
    Snowboarding and skiing differences - 1991/92 through 1998/99
    Shealy, J.E.
    Ettlinger, C.F.
    Johnson, R.J.
    ASTM Special Technical Publication
    n 1397, 2001, p 132-138

    Injuries in alpine skiing, telemarking, and snowboarding
    Ekeland, Arne
    Rodven, Andreas
    ASTM Special Technical Publication
    n 1397, 2001, p 87-94

    Physics and Snowboarding
    Swinson, D. B.
    Physics Teacher
    v 32, n 9, 1994, p 530

    Snowboarding standards: Catching air
    Walikis, Rob
    Standardization News
    v 24, n 2, Feb, 1996, p 22

    Ski field injuries: the snowboarders
    Lamont, Michael K.
    ASTM Special Technical Publication
    n 1266, Mar, 1996, p 82-86

    Snowboarder's talus fracture
    Paul, Carol C.
    Janes, Peter C.
    ASTM Special Technical Publication
    n 1266, Mar, 1996, p 388-393

    Snowboard vs. downhill skiing injuries
    Shealy, Jasper E.
    ASTM Special Technical Publication
    n 1182, 1993, p 241-254

    Dynamic bending analysis of snowboards
    Sakata, Toshiyuki; Kawai, Shigehiro
    Nippon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu, C Hen/
    Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers
    Part C, v 61, n 584, Apr, 1995, p 1469-1475

    Release binding for snowboards
    Bally, Alexis
    Shneegans, Francois
    ASTM Special Technical Publication
    n 1345, Apr, 1999, p 132-137

    Comparison of knowledge and behavior in young injured and
    non-injured skiers
    Macnab, Andrew J.
    Cadman, Robert E.
    Greenlaw, Julia V.
    ASTM Special Technical Publication
    n 1345, Apr, 1999, p 3-10

    Robotics applied to sports engineering
    Hasegawa, Kenji
    Shimizu, Shiro
    Yoshizawa, Masatada
    Advanced Robotics
    v 14, n 5, 2000, p 377-379

    Ski injury epidemiology: A two year epidemiology study of
    injuries with skiboards
    Greenwald, Richard M.
    Nesshoever, Mike
    Boynton, Melbourne D.
    ASTM Special Technical Publication
    n 1440, 2003, p 113-120

    Physically based modeling and control of turning
    van de Panne, Michiel
    Fiume, Eugene
    Vranesic, Zvonko
    CVGIP: Graphical Models and Image Processing
    v 55, n 6, Nov, 1993, p 507-521

    Ski injury epidemiology: A short-term epidemiology study
    of injuries with skiboards
    Greenwald, Richard M.
    Nesshoever, Mike
    Boynton, Melbourne D.
    ASTM Special Technical Publication
    n 1397, 2001, p 119-126

    Free vibrations of a snowboard
    Sakata, Toshiyuki
    Kawai, Shigehiro
    Kawada, Fumio
    International Journal of Mechanical Sciences
    v 38, n 6, Jun, 1996, p 579-588

    Infrared thermal analysis of ski and snowboard binding systems
    Roberts, Charles C. Jr.
    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
    v 2766, 1996, p 110-120

    Effects of mechanical properties of snowboard on snowboard turn
    Hosokawa, Kenji
    Ando, Shinya
    Kawai, Shigehiro
    Sakata, Toshiyuki
    Nippon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu, C Hen/
    Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers,
    Part C, v 70, n 1, January, 2004, p 221-228

    Method for measuring the mechanical properties of snowboard boot and
    binding systems in bending
    Crisco, J.J.
    Torres, K.
    Greenwald, R.M.
    American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Bioengineering Division
    (Publication) BED
    v 42, 1999, p 709-710

    Cure monitoring of composite laminates used in the manufacturing of
    Pelczarski, Noel V. (Univ of Vermont); Huston, Dryver Source: Proceedings
    of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
    Engineering, v 3993, 2000, p 228-239
    Database: Compendex
    Abstract / Links | Detailed Record / Links

    38. Ski and snowboard vibration
    Glenne, Bard
    DeRocco, Anthony
    Foss, Gary
    S V Sound and Vibration
    v 33, n 1, Jan, 1999, p 30-33

    Development and validation of an apparatus for determining
    snowboard boot stiffness
    Torres, Katherine
    Crisco, Joseph J.
    Greenwald, Richard M.
    ASTM Special Technical Publication
    n 1397, 2001, p 68-83

    Physics of skiing: The ideal-carving equation and its applications
    Jentschura, U.D.
    Fahrbach, F.
    Canadian Journal of Physics
    v 82, n 4, April, 2004, p 249-261

    Gender-related injury patterns in skiing
    Shealy, Jasper E.
    Ettlinger, Carl F.
    ASTM Special Technical Publication
    n 1266, Mar, 1996, p 45-57

    Title: Biomechanics of lower leg injury in snowboarding
    Author(s): Grewal, Devinder Singh.
    Year: 2002
    Dissertation: Thesis (Ph. D. in Engineering-Mechanical Engineering)--
    University of California, Berkeley, Spring 2002.

    I hope that this list of source citations will help you with your

    McClellan, Annie Jeanne"
    did a quick search on the SportDiscus database and found the following:

    1. Kinematic analysis of snowboard turn - comparison with ski turn. Ikegami, Y.;
    XVIth ISB Tokyo Congress, August 25-29, 1997, hosted by the University of Tokyo.
    of abstracts, International Society of Biomechanics, p.81.

    2. An analysis of the effect of a snowboard wrist guard on the dynamic impact
    of human cadaver forearms. Greenwald, R.M.; In Proceedings of NACOB'98 the Third
    American Congress on Biomechanics, combined with the Twenty-Second Annual
    Conference of
    the American Society of Biomechanics and the Tenth Biennial Conference of the
    Society of Biomechanics/Societe Canadienne de Biomechanique, s.l., p.533-534.

    3. The development of a snowboard-specific equilibrium and coordination testing
    training device. Greil, T.; In 2nd International Congress on Skiing and
    January 9-15, 2000, St. Christoph a. Arlberg, Austria. Abstract book, St.
    Christoph a.
    Arlberg, Austria, s.n., c2000, p.204-205.

    I don't know how much help those would be on their own (you may have found them
    on your
    own already), but maybe if you can get to those references they would have
    worth checking out or name researchers in that field.

    good luck!

    Kevin Carlson
    We have attempted to do just such a study and were not successful in
    finding any previous literature. We completed some pilot work
    comparing two different turns two winters ago and are going to
    continute that work this winter. Please keep me posted as to how your
    study progresses. We are particularly interested in your methodology.
    I can send you what we have done up to this point if you are

    am not and have never been directly involved in snowboarding research.
    However, I do know there is a great deal of ski research out there. With this
    information, you can devise methods of taking measurements on a snowboard,
    similar to those that have been accomplished through skiing. That's pretty
    vague, though.

    I do know you can search PubMed for such research articles and many will show
    up. Just figure out the correct keywords. (Snowboarding, gait, mobility,
    biomechanics, pressure distribution, etc). I know there have been a couple of
    studies from Canada looking at the biomechanics and resulting plantar pressure
    distribution during ski turns. They had the same goals as yours.

    As a basic answer, there has been plenty of research accomplished with
    snowboarding. J. of Biomechanics, American College of Sports Medicine, Eur. J.

    of Physiology, Amer. J. of Physiology, Eur. J. of Sports Physiology,
    International J. of Biomechanics, and many more have all published snowboarding

    related articles. You can also check on the Soloman R&D, Burton R&D and other
    snowboarding manufacturers websites for a name in Research and Development. E-
    mail them and they should be able to send you a bibliography of published
    articles they have put out over the past x-number of years, usually 5 or 6.

    I hope these ideas help.


    Christopher Mina

    Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania USA
    Undergraduate, 2006
    BioEngineering / Exercise Physiology

    McClymont, Doug"
    We have a machine for teaching aerials to snowboarders! I was only
    involved on the periphery so you might contact Richard Green at UC.

    Say hello to Matt Greig for me will you, ask him how the digitising is


    I am forwarding you some information from a friend of mine that may be
    able to assist you with your project. Please read below.

    Best Regards
    Please tell Dominic Mckee, That I may have a friend who could help
    His name is Stephen Tamaribuchi. He is a biomechanical consultant for the
    athletes and other sports champions. He has worked with Bode Miller the
    Skier and worked with professional champion snowboarders in fine tuning their

    You can find his website through my website at

    Go to my "Hot Stuff" page and look for the links to Biogrip and or e3.
    You will
    also se that I have his logos that are also linked to his site.

    Also, I maybe working with an Orthopedic Physician regarding
    proprioception sensory
    regarding skiing and snowboarding. Something that is related to the
    and kinesiology of skiing and snowboarding.

    Please tell Dominic Mckee if I can get any information learned about the
    biomechanics of snowbaorders. I am always interested in improving my
    abilities for my students.

    Dominic Mckee can also contact me directly if s/he has any questions. It
    would be
    good to exchange ideas.

    Sam Morishima
    (916) 736 0432
    2540 Donner Way
    Sacramento, CA. 95818

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