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  • Re: snowboarding research

    Hi all, here are some more contributions.

    Kim K-J, Cooney WP, Kaufman KR, and An K-N (2001) Biomechanics of Wrist
    Guards during Fall Arrests, ASME BED-Vol. 50:271-272.

    Hwang I-K and Kim K-J (2004) Shock-Absorbing Effects of Various Padding
    Conditions in Improving Efficacy of Wrist Guards, J. of Sports Science and
    Medicine 3:23-29.

    Kim K-J, Alian A, Morris WS, Lee Y-H (2004) Shock Attenuation of Various
    Protective Devices for Prevention of Fall-Related Injuries of the Upper
    Extremity, American Journal of Sports Medicine, to be submitted soon.


    ========================================
    Kyu-Jung Kim, Ph.D., Assistant Professor
    Department of Mechanical Engineering
    1239 EMS Building, PO BOX 784
    University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
    Milwaukee, WI 53201
    Email: kimk2@uwm.edu
    Web Page: http://www.uwm.edu/~kimk2
    (414) 229-5898, 229-6958 (Fax)
    ========================================



    -----Original Message-----
    From: * Biomechanics and Movement Science listserver
    [mailto:BIOMCH-L@NIC.SURFNET.NL]On Behalf Of Greg
    Sent: Wednesday, December 01, 2004 10:34 PM
    To: BIOMCH-L@NIC.SURFNET.NL
    Subject: [BIOMCH-L] snowboarding research


    Hello All,



    Re: Snowboarding research



    I was forwarded a snowboarding information request and thought that I may be
    able to contribute.

    We have been using an electromagnetic system to measure foot and ankle
    motion inside a snowboard boot for the past 4 years. This has been in
    collaboration with the University of Otago, School of Physical Education. It
    was originally research as a part of my Masters degree however it has
    progressed slowly although we have not published anything as yet.



    We initially measured simulated (lab controlled) snowboard landings using
    soft and hard boot types and also different fall angles. From this we were
    able to determine potentially injurious movements that may contribute to
    injury, notably fractures to the lateral process of the talus or
    "snowboarders ankle". As well as this we measured in boot plantar foot
    pressures using Tekscan. These results were presented at the last 2
    International Society of Ski Trauma and Safety conferences in Queenstown and
    St Moritz. Using this motion tracking equipment we considered the sensors
    were an appropriate and accurate way of measuring subtle movements inside
    the boot.



    Following this we performed a pilot last year on the same system made semi
    wireless and had the snowboarder ride with a pc and motion capture unit on
    his back. Thus we were able to measure 3D motion whilst snowboarding and
    performing several jumps. This proved successful and interesting results
    were obtained particularly with respect to rotational angular velocity
    around the ankle.



    This year we have recently completed a larger study using the same
    methodology and compared two different boot types amongst several subjects.
    This type of research is very difficult and we underestimated the time
    required for each trial. Nonetheless we now have a large data set and using
    Skill Techologies 6DR software are able to also measure other interesting
    variables such as angular velocity, accelerations, and displacements (i.e.
    foot movement inside the boot - heel slippage is a real issue for
    snowboarders).



    We now have simulated landing ranges of motion to compare with our field
    testing and certainly the results are interesting. We are presenting these
    results in Japan next April at the ISSS conference.



    The next step is to develop a computerised testing system so that
    manufacturers can test boots inside of a jig that will flex the boot in a
    way that mimics the slalom manoeuvres that we have derived our results from.
    Thus they can get repeated and accurate flexions over time to determine boot
    deformation etc.



    We have a wealth of information on virtually every published snowboarding
    article up until now (sorry English only). If anyone needs advise or help
    then I am prepared to lend a hand given we have learnt so much over the
    past.

    5 years.



    Kind regards



    Greg Woolman

    Sports Podiatrist

    Dip Pod, PG Dip Sportsmed, MHSc







    Sportsmed

    156 Bealey Ave

    Christchurch

    New Zealand



    *+64 33660-620

    *+64 33550-668

    mobile 021 357522

    email sportspod@xtra.co.nz

    ___________________________________________




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