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  • Stepping down

    Thanks to the individuals who responded to my request for sources on
    dynamics of "down-stepping". As promised, a summary follows:

    The original request:

    >A colleague has requested information about published work on the biomechanics
    >of stepping down from a moderate height (15-50cm?), with particular interest
    >in involved forces and possible injuries. I am not familiar with such a
    >literature and would appreciate any suggestions. As is customary, I'll collect
    >and post a summary of the replies I receive. Thanks.

    >Larry Abraham, EdD
    >Kinesiology & Health Education
    >The University of Texas at Austin
    >Austin, TX 78723 USA
    >(512)471-1273 FAX (512)471-8914

    The replies:

    From: Duane Knudson

    Just a quick note on some references I have. Its amazing that such a
    exercise craze has so few studies jumping on the bandwagon. Have your
    friend check out:
    Loy & Voloshin (1991) biomechanics of stain walking and jumping J of Sports
    Sciences 9:137-149
    Newton & Humphries (1991) peak ground reaction forces during step aerobics,
    walking and jogging Biomechanics in Sports IX pp. 67-71 Reebok has some GRF
    data in their Step Reebok book

    Date: Tue, 12 Oct 93 15:55:20 -0500
    From: Philip Schot

    We have some preliminary data available on the vertical GRFs from stair
    ascent and descent that may be of interest. If interested in this info,
    please contact me directly.

    Philip Schot, PhD
    Biomechanics Lab
    Dept of Human Kinetics

    From: "Brian Davis"
    Date: Tue, 12 Oct 93 16:48:47 EDT

    I did a search with Kit Vaughan's bibliography (GaitBib) and found the
    following that may help your colleague;

    Freedman W; Wannstedt G; Herman R
    EMG patterns and forces developed during step-down American Journal of
    Physical Medicine, 55(6):275-290

    Nisell R; Mizrahi J; Ekholm J
    Knee and ankle loads during step down activities Biomechanics X-B (ed. B.
    Jonsson), Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign, Illinois, 1137-1142.

    Andriacchi TP; Anderson GB; Fermier RW; Stern D; Galante JO 1980 Jul
    A study of lower-limb mechanics during stair-climbing Journal of Bone and
    Joint Surgery (Am), 62(5):749-757

    Andriacchi TP; Galante JO; Fermier RW
    1982 Dec
    The influence of total knee-replacement design on walking and
    stair-climbing Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (Am), 64(9):1328-1335

    Freedman W; Craik R
    Effects of altered sensory input on stair descent (progress report)
    Bulletin of Prosthetics Research, BPR 10-35, 18(1):239-241

    Joseph J; Watson R
    1967 Nov
    Telemetering electromyography of muscles used in walking up and down stairs
    Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (Br), 49(4):774-780

    Kelman GJ; Biden EN; Wyatt MP; Ritter MA; Colwell CW Jr 1989
    Gait laboratory analysis of a posterior cruciate-spacing total knee
    arthroplasty in stair ascent and descent Clinical Orthopaedics, 248:21-25,
    Discussion 25-26

    Kikuchi T
    Force plate analysis of ascending and descending stairs Nippon Seikeigeka
    Gakkai Zasshi, 62(5):485-494

    Koganezawa K; Fujimoto H; Kato I
    Multifunctional above-knee prosthesis for stairs' walking Prosthetics and
    Orthotic International, 11(3):139-145

    Livingston LA; Stevenson JM; Olney SJ
    Stairclinbing kinematics on stairs of differing dimensions Archives of
    Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 72(6):398-402

    Loy DJ; Voloshin AS
    Biomechanics of stair walking and jumping Journal of Sports Sciences,

    Lyons K; Perry J; Gronley JK; Barnes L; Antonelli D 1983 Oct
    Timing and relative intensity of hip extensor and abductor muscle action
    during level and stair ambulation. An EMG study. Physical Therapy,

    McFadyen B; Winter D
    1986 Aug
    Integrated biomechanical and EMG analysis of stair walking (abstract) North
    American Congress on Biomechanics, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

    McFadyen BJ; Winter DA
    An integrated biomechanical analysis of normal stair ascent and descent
    Journal of Biomechanics, 21(9):733-744

    Medeiros JM; Rager MA; Ressler LA
    1980 Oct
    Electrical activity in selected muscles during level walking, ascending and
    descending stairs
    Human Locomotion I, Proceedings of Canadian Society for Biomechanics, 8-9

    Rudel D; Bajd T; Kralj A; Beuko H
    1986 Sep
    Crutch, staircase railing and foot-floor reaction forces during paraplegics
    stair climbing (abstract)
    Fifth Meeting of the European Society of Biomechanics, Berlin, West Germany

    Shinno N
    Analysis of knee function in ascending and descending stairs Biomechanics
    II, (eds. J Vredenbregt, J Wartenweiler), Karger, Basel, 202-207

    Townsend MA; Lainhart SP; Shiavi R; Caylor J 1978 Nov
    Variability and biomechanics of synergy patterns of some lower-limb muscles
    during ascending and descending stairs and level walking Medical and
    Biological Engineering and Computing, 16(6):681-688

    Watson J; Watson R
    Telemetering electromyography of muscles used in walking up and down stairs
    Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (Br), 49B:774-780

    Regards, Brian Davis

    Date: Wed, 13 Oct 1993 15:33:51 +0200 (EET)
    From: "Prof. Joe Mizrahi"

    2 references:

    1. Nisell R and Mizrahi J (1988) "Knee and ankle joint forces developed
    during various steps and jumps down" Clinical Biomechanics, 3:92-100.

    2. Nisell R, Mizrahi J and Ekholm J (1987) "Knee and ankle loads during
    step-down activities" In: Biomechanics XB, ed B. Jonsson, Human Kinetic
    Publishers, Champaign, Ill, pp 1137-1142.

    Prof. Joseph Mizrahi , D.Sc.
    Dept. of Biomedical Eng. Technion IIT
    Phone: 972-4-294128 Fax: 972-4-234131

    Date: Tue, 12 Oct 93 19:35:04 EDT

    We have an article in the Journal of Biomechanics on stair ascent and
    descent. It includes moments of force, emg and joint kinematics. It may be
    of some use to your colleague. The reference is McFadyen and Winter, 1988,
    An integrated biomechanical analysis of normal stair gait. JOB, 21, pg
    733-744. I know there is a literature on jump downs. McKinnely from Mcgill
    University might be an author to search. These papers may cover step downs
    too. Good luck, Brad McFadyen, Departement de kinanthropologie, Universite
    du Quebec a Montreal

    Larry Abraham, EdD
    Kinesiology & Health Education
    The University of Texas at Austin
    Austin, TX 78723 USA
    (512)471-1273 FAX (512)471-8914