Thank's a lot to all responders !

The question was:

Dear all,

We are looking for Hill-parameters of the upper extremity including the optimal length, maximum isometric force and the shape parameters for the length-force- and the velocity-force-characteristics. In our literature review we found values for the lengths and the maximum isometric forces but not for the shape parameters!

Does anyone have articles which are summarizing Hill parameters for the upper extremity?

Thank's for any help!

Holger Muggenthaler (Ph.D. student)

Institute for Legal Medicine
University Munich

The answers were:

These two papers and references in them cam help you:

Raikova, R.T., Aladjov, Hr. Ts. (2005) Comparison between two muscle models under dynamic conditions. Computers in Biology and Medicine, 35, 373-387
Raikova, R.T., Aladjov, H.Ts. (2003) The influence of the way the muscle force is modeled on the predicted results obtained by solving indeterminate problems for a fast elbow flexion. Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, 6, 181-196
Rosi Raikova
Assoc.Prof. Rositsa Raikova
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
Centre of Biomedical Engineering
1113 Sofia
as far as I know, not much is available. You should have a look at the paper by Klein Breteler et al. in JoB 24(7). The original report can be found on
(bottom of the page).

Dear Sir,

I have published an article on identifying those variables. In this article, a lot of references are included which may be helpful to your inquiry.
I attach the article.

Please feel free to ask for further assistance.

Panagiotis Artemiadis

Panagiotis K. Artemiadis
PhD Student
Control Systems Laboratory Mechanical Eng. Dept National Technical University of Athens
9 Heroon Polytechniou Str., Zografou
Zografou Athens 15700, Greece
A. L. Hof wrote:

Try the tables in:
Multiple muscle systems" by Winters and Woo, Springer 1990, pp 717-773 ISBN 0-387-97307-9 Force-velocity relation for biceps is in Wilkie J Physiol 110:249-280 (1950)
I'm sorry I do not have the information you are looking for. However, I would greatly appreciate it if you would post a summary of responses you get from this request, back to Biomch-L.

Which upper extremity muscles are you interested in? What literature have you found about maximum isometric forces?

I found this article:
Bompa, TO
Technique and muscle force.
Can J Appl Sport Sci. 1980 Dec;5(4):245-9.
PMID: 7449041

Which was not very detailed.

Thank you in advance for sharing what you find.
-Kieran Coghlan
University at Buffalo, NY
I saw your posting on BIOMCH-L. We have data on fiber types and estimated shortening velocities for shoulder muscles. The paper has been accepted by Clinical Anatomy. I have attached a copy of the manuscript.

I hope this is of some use to you.


Richard E. Hughes, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery and Biomedical Engineering MedSport University of Michigan
24 Frank Lloyd Wright Drive
POB 391
Ann Arbor, MI 48106-0391
Phone 734-930-7388
FAX 734-930-7379
Hi Holger,

Table 3 in the attached manuscript demonstrates normalized "Vmax" values for the triceps brachii.

Matt Camilleri
Biomedical Engineering
UC Davis
My favourite source is the last chapter of:
Multiple muscle systems : biomechanics and movement organization / Jack M. Winters, Savio L-Y. Woo, editors.
Publisher: New York : Springer-Verlag, c1990.
Description: xx, 801 p. : ill. ; 26 cm.
ISBN: 0387973079 (alk. paper)

It tends to give fibre lengths and fibre type fractions, which should allow you to get the force-velocity curves for all the different muscles.

David Morgan
Please refer to the PhD thesis of Sybert Stroeve
Kamran Iqbal (E-mail:
Associate Professor