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Re: formula x + 10 = y ?????

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  • Re: formula x + 10 = y ?????

    Anders Ericsson (at Florida State University) has proposed that 10,000 hours
    of "deliberate practice" are required in order to achieve expertise in a
    sport. This has been researched with musicians by Ericsson, and among athletes
    by other researchers, among them Starkes. I believe that some researchers have
    suggested that 10,000 hours equates to approximately 10 years of practice in
    a sport domain.

    Below are the references Ericsson suggests on his page at FSU. I hope this

    Kimberlee Bethany Bonura
    Doctoral Candidate, Sport Psychology, Florida State University

    Most recent publications on this topic
    Ericsson, K. A. (2002). Attaining excellence through deliberate practice:
    Insights from the study of expert performance. In M. Ferrari (Ed.), The pursuit
    of excellence in education (pp. 21-55) . Hillsdale , N.J. : Erlbaum.
    Ericsson, K. A. (2003). The development of elite performance and deliberate
    practice: An update from the perspective of the expert-performance approach.
    In J. Starkes and K. A. Ericsson (Eds.), Expert performance in sport: Recent
    advances in research on sport expertise (pp. 49-81). Champaign , IL : Human
    Ericsson, K. A. (2003). How the expert-performance approach differs from
    traditional approaches to expertise in sports: In search of a shared theoretical
    framework for studying expert performance. In J. Starkes and K. A. Ericsson
    (Eds.), Expert performance in sport: Recent advances in research on sport
    expertise (pp. 371-401). Champaign , IL : Human Kinetics.
    Ericsson, K. A. (2003). The acquisition of expert performance as problem
    solving: Construction and modification of mediating mechanisms through
    deliberate practice. In J. E. Davidson and R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), Problem solving
    (pp. 31-83). New York : Cambridge University Press.
    Ericsson, K. A. (2003). The search for general abilities and basic
    capacities: Theoretical implications from the modifiability and complexity of
    mechanisms mediating expert performance. In R. J. Sternberg and E. L. Grigorenko
    (Eds.), Perspectives on the psychology of abilities, competencies, and expertise
    (pp. 93-125). Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
    Ericsson, K. A. (2004). Deliberate practice and the acquisition and
    maintenance of expert performance in medicine and related domains. Academic Medicine,
    10, S1-S12.
    Relevant basic publications
    Ericsson, K. A. (1996). The acquisition of expert performance: An
    introduction to some of the issues. In K. A. Ericsson (Ed.), The road to excellence:
    The acquisition of expert performance in the arts and sciences, sports, and
    games (pp. 1-50). Mahwah , NJ : Erlbaum.
    Ericsson, K. A. (1999). Creative expertise as superior reproducible
    performance: Innovative and flexible aspects of expert performance. Psychological
    Inquiry, 10(4 ), 329-333.
    Ericsson, K. A. (2000). How experts attain and maintain superior performance:
    Implications for the enhancement of skilled performance in older
    individuals. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 8, 346-352.
    Ericsson, K. A. (2000/2001). Expertise in interpreting: An expert-performance
    perspective. Interpreting, 5(2 ), 187-220.
    Ericsson, K.A. (2001). The path to expert golf performance: Insights from the
    masters on how to improve performance by deliberate practice. In P. R.
    Thomas (Ed.), Optimising performance in golf (pp. 1-57). Brisbane , Australia :
    Australian Academic Press.
    Ericsson, K. A., & Charness, N. (1994). Expert performance: Its structure
    and acquisition. American Psychologist, 49(8) , 725-747.
    Ericsson, K. A., Krampe, R. Th., & Tesch-Römer, C. (1993). The role of
    deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance. Psychological
    Review, 100(3) , 363-406.
    Ericsson, K. A., & Lehmann, A. C. (1996). Expert and exceptional
    performance: Evidence of maximal adaptations to task constraints. Annual Review of
    Psychology, 47. 273-305.
    Ericsson, K. A., & Smith, J. (1991). Prospects and limits in the empirical
    study of expertise: An introduction. In K. A. Ericsson and J. Smith (Eds.),
    Toward a general theory of expertise: Prospects and limits (pp. 1-38).
    Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
    Krampe, R. Th., & Ericsson, K. A. (1996). Maintaining excellence: Deliberate
    practice and elite performance in young and older pianists. Journal of
    Experimental Psychology: General, 125 , 331-359.
    Lehmann, A. C., & Ericsson K. A. (1998). The historical development of
    domains of expertise: Performance standards and innovations in music. In A.
    Steptoe (Ed.), Genius and the mind (pp. 67-94). Oxford , UK : Oxford University

    In a message dated 5/18/2006 5:05:50 P.M. Eastern Daylight Time,
    tholumusam@EIEFD.CO.CU writes:

    Dear collegues,

    A friend of mine attended a conference on talent selection in sports in
    South Africa some years back where a certain German professor(whom he does
    not remember) proposed the formula x + 10 = y to determine the number of
    years it would take for the athlete to attain optimum participation in
    competitive sport.

    x= year of initiation
    10= number of years to be spent in the preparation of an athlete
    y= year of competitive participation

    I would like to know if anyone has come across such a formula as well as the
    details of where to use it and with what level information it gives apart
    from that, any published sources t where I could find enlightening with
    regards to that.

    Thank you in anticipation

    For your collaboration

    Tholumusa Favoured Mlalazi

    (Internacional School of Physical Education & Sports)

    Counsel of the year

    Don't take life too seriously,
    Don't take too easy either,
    Just take it as it is.

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