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Summary on bone structure of interspecies

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  • Summary on bone structure of interspecies

    Dear Biomech-L netters:

    I posted a query for the information regarding the cortical bone structure
    of interspecies a week ago. Since then, I have received replies including
    comments, references, and suggestions, which are very helpful to our
    research. I would like to greatly appreciate all respondents for their
    kindness. As promised, I have summarized all replies. It is no doubt that
    the information posted here is helpful to those who might be interested in
    this topic.


    Xiaodu Wang Ph.D.

    My original message is as follows.
    Dear netters:

    I am looking for the information concerning cortical bone microstructure of
    animals such as canine, rabbit, baboon, and bovine. We are doing the research
    on the fracture toughness of cortical bone from different species, and trying to
    correlate bone fracture toughness to its structure. I did literature search,
    but found little on this issue. I would appreciate it very much if anyone could
    share the information with me. I will post the summary of all responds. Thank
    you in advance.

    Xiaodu Wang Ph.D.
    Orthopaedic Research
    UTHSCSA, San Antonio, TX
    Tel: (210)-567-6494
    Fax: (210)-567-6295

    Following are the replies I received.

    A good starting point is Cowin's Book, Bone Mechanics
    Publisher is CRC Press, around 1990.

    Gook Luck,

    Mike Sanders
    e-mail: msanders@ME.UVic.CA
    Grad. Student
    Mechanical Engineering Department
    University of Victoria, Canada.

    Dr Wang:

    You won't find the answer to your inquiry through a literature search.
    The information that you are looking for is in the comparative histology
    area, and has not been systematically reviewed in any paper that I am aware
    of. There are lovely pieces of scholarship by Foote (1916); Amprino and
    Godina (1947) and Enlow on microstrcutre in different species, but these are
    based on isolated samples and may not be representative of the species
    examined. Comact bone microstructure is also typically reported anectodally
    is other papers. You might have a look at Martin and Burr's book "Structure,
    Function and Adaptation of Compact Bone" for a discussion of different
    compact bone tissue types.

    I have used bones from all of these species, so I will offer the follow

    Canines - there lots of literature on the dog skeleton. The dogs has been
    used extensively for bone biology/histomorphometry studies and some
    biomechanics studies (Moyle's fracture toughness studies). Its cortical
    bone is prinicpally secondary osteonal, having replaced lamellar primary
    osteonal bone.

    Rabbits - Not a whole lot of data here. Rabbits have some secondary
    osteonal regions in their long bone cortices, but it's not a great deal.
    Most of the rabbit cortex is primary osteonal bone.

    Baboons - Looks a lot like dog bone. Its cortical bone is prinicpally
    secondary osteonal, having replaced lamellar primary osteonal bone. There is
    a fair amount of recent literature on the bone biology cynomogolus baboons,
    published by the Chris Jerome and David Weaver at Wake Forest Univeristy

    Bovine - Cow bone is primarily plexiform, with focal regions of secondary
    osteonal remodeling. The properties of bovine bone and correlations to its
    microstructure have been extensively discussed in the literature (see Martin
    and Burr for review)

    As a general rule, age is a very important determinant of the kind of
    compact bone tissue. Everythin that I have described is true only for
    adult, skeletally mature animals. In skeletally immature animals, the
    picture is completely different.

    I hope these comments may be of some use to you. Please let me know if
    you need any additional information. Good luck with your research.

    Mitch Schaffler
    Head, Section of Anatomy
    Henry Ford Health Sciences Ctr.
    Detroit, MI, 48202


    I suggest you contact Dave Burr; he's chairman of the department of
    anatomy at Indiana University, Indianapolis 46202. Tel: (317) 274-7496,

    Joel Vilensky

    Dear Dr. Wang:

    The most comprehensive study of comparative bone histology
    is that of Donald H. Enlow and Sidney O. Brown, published in
    three issues of The Texas Journal of Science:

    1) Vol. 8(4):405-443 (1956)
    2) Vol. 9(2):186-214 (1957)
    3) Vol. 10(2):187-230 (1958)

    This series of papers described the histology of numerous
    taxa (most Orders are represented). Volume 3 is a comparative
    study of Mammalia.

    There is, in addition, a comparative study of some carnivores by:

    Diaz, C.M.C. and Rajtova, V in Folia Morphologica,
    Vol. 23(3):221-229 (1975).

    It may interest you to know that we curate the Donald H. Enlow
    Histology Collection here in New York, and so we have the sections
    used in the TJS series.

    From: Tim Bromage

    Here are some possible references, as promised. I have many other articles
    relating to mechanical tests of bone (and damage in bone) from different
    animals, but I have selected ones that seems to include at least some
    discussion of the microstructure. If you are interested in the references
    for articles I have not included, please let me know. Your literature search
    may have already come up with these.


    Currey, JD. The effects of strain rate, reconstruction, and mineral
    content on some mechanical properties of bovine bone. J. Biomechanics
    2:1-11, 1975

    Wright TM, Hayes WC. Tensile testing of bone over a wide range of strain
    rates: effects of strain rate, microstructure and density. Medical and
    Biological Engineering Vol ? November, 1976, pp. 671-679

    Saha S, Hayes WC. Relations between tensile impact properties and
    microstructure of compact bone. Calcified Tissue Research 24:65-52, 1977

    Behiri JC, Bonfield W. Orientation dependence of the fracture mechanics
    of cortical bone. J. Biomechanics 22:863-872, 1989

    Lipson SF, Katz JL. The relationship between elastic properties and
    microstructure of bovine cortical bone. J. Biomechanics 4:231-240, 1984

    Simkin A, Robin G. Fracture formation in differing collagen fiber pattern
    of compact bone. J. Biomechanics 7:183-188, 1974

    Martin RB, Ishida J. The relative effects of collagen fiber orientation,
    porosity, density, and mineralization on bone strength. J. Biomechanics
    5:419-426, 1989

    Martin RB, Boardman DL. The effects of collagen fiber orientation, porosity,
    density, and mineralization on bovine cortical bone bending properties.
    J. Biomechanics 26:1047-1054, 1993


    Moyle DD, Welborn JW III, Cooke FW. Work to fracture of canine femoral
    bone. J. Biomechanics 11:435-440, 1978

    Katz JL, Meunier A. Scanning acoustic microscope studies of the elastic
    properties of osteons, and osteon lamellae. J Biomechanical Engineering
    115:543-548, 1993


    Pope MH, Outwater JO. The fracture characteristics of bone substance.
    J. Biomechanics 5:457-465, 1972. (**Includes data and discussion of
    tests on bovine, canine, anthropoid (rhesus monkey and human) bone, which
    are compared with other work where possible.**)


    Robertson DM, Smith DC. Compressive strength of mandibular bone as a
    function of microstructure and strain rate. J. Biomechanics 11:455-471,


    Currey JD. Strain rate dependence of the mechanical properties of reindeer
    antler and the cumulative damage model of bone fracture. J. Biomechanics


    McCarthy RN, Jeffcott LB, McCartney RN. Ultrasound speed in equine cortical
    bone: effects of orientation, density, porosity and temperature.
    J. Biomechanics 23(11):1139-1143, 1990

    Walmsley R, Smith JW. Variation in bone structure and the value of
    Young's modulus. Jounral of Anatomy 91:603 - ?, 1957


    Saha S. The Dynamic Strength of Bone and Its Relevance. in
    Osteoarthromechanics. Ghista DN, ed. McGraw-Hill. Year?? (This chapter
    discusses the relevance of microstructure, and also contains a number
    of references pertaining to mechanical tests on bone from different

    Katz JL. The structure and biomechanics of bone. in The Mechanical
    Properties of Biological Materials (Symposia of the Society for
    Experimental Biology) #34, Cambridge University Press, 1980

    Melvin JW. Fracture Mechanics of Bone. Journal of Biomechanical
    Engineering 115:549-554, 1993 (This is a review article dealing mainly
    with human and bovine bone.

    Bonfield W. Advances in the fracture mechanics of cortical bone.
    J. Biomechanics 20:1071-1081, 1987 (Also a review article, with lots
    of summary data.)

    Keaveny TM, Hayes WC. Mechanical properties of cortical and trabecular
    bone. in Bone Vol 7: Bone Growth - B. Brian K Hall, ed. CRC Press, 1993
    (has a section on the effects of microstructure on cortical bone properties.)

    Martin RB, Burr DB. Structure, Function, and Adaptation of Compact Bone.
    Raven Press, New York, 1984 (?)

    Hogan HA. Micromechanics modeling of haversian cortical bone properties.
    J. Biomechanics. 25:549-556, 1992

    Burr DB, Schaffler MB, Frederickson RG. Composition of the cement line
    and its possible mechanical role as a local interface in human compact
    bone. 21:939-945, 1988


    Amy Courtney, Ph.D.
    Dept. of Biomedical Engineering
    The Cleveland Clinic Foundation
    Cleveland, Ohio, USA
    Dear Xiaodu:

    I am working on the methods for the in-vivo measurement of human bone
    density. These are some articles and books relating mechanical properties
    of human and animals cortical bone with mineral density, hydratation state
    and structure.

    Evans FG. Mechanical properties of bone. Springfield - Illinois - USA:
    Charles C. Thomas - Publisher, 1973:

    Horsman A., Currey J.D.: Estimation of mechanical properties of the distal
    radius from bone mineral content and cortical width. Clin.Orthop., 1983,

    Snyder S.M., Schneider E.: Estimation of mechanical properties of cortical
    bone by computed tomography. J.Orthp.Res., 1991, 9:422-431.

    Broz J.J., simske S.J., Greenberg A.R., Luttges M.W.: Effects of
    rehydratation state on the flexural properties of whole mouse long bones.
    J.Biomech.Eng., 1993, 115:447.

    Finlay J.B., Hardie W.R.: Anisotropic contraction of cortical bone caused
    by dehydratation of samples of the bovine femur in vitro . J.Eng.Med.,
    1994, 208:27-32.

    Sasaki N., Yoshikawa M.: Stress relaxation in native and EDTA-treated bone
    as function of mineral content . J.Biomechanics, 1993, 26:77-83.

    Koheles S.S., Vanderby Jr R., Ashman R.B., Manley P.A., Markel M.D., Heiner
    J.P.: Ultrasonically determined elasticity and cortical density in canine
    femora after total hip arthroplasty. J.Biomechanics, 1993, 27:137-144.

    In the Proceedings of the Second World Congress of Biomechanics, July 10-15
    1994, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, you can find many authors working on this
    argument. See for examples:

    Schaffer M.B., Fyhrie, D.P., Radin E.L, Bone microdamage and microstructure
    (research on human cortical bone)

    Tanabe, Y., Tanner K.E., Bonfield W., Dynamic mechanical analysis of bovine
    cortical bone

    Have a good research.

    Fabio Baruffaldi
    Laboratorio di Tecnologia dei Materiali tel. 0039-51-6366864
    Istituti Ortopedici Rizzoli
    via di barbiano 1/10, 40136 - Bologna, Italy fax. 0039-51-6366863


    ---------------------------- END OF THE FILE ------------------------------

    Xiaodu Wang Ph.D.
    Orthopaedic Research
    UTHSCSA, San Antonio, TX
    Tel: (210)-567-6494
    Fax: (210)-567-6295