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MRI Fiducial Markers to measure CNS tissue motion

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  • MRI Fiducial Markers to measure CNS tissue motion

    Hello all,

    I am conducting some research that involves quantifying in vivo spinal cord
    motion using MR-based images. I have done a fair bit of literature search,
    looking for studies that have effectively utilized small (~0.2mm diameter is
    the size required for my study) fiducial markers in any type of Central
    Nervous System (CNS) tissue, but unfortunately I have not come up with
    anything. I have already conducted some preliminary work to test the
    efficacy of a number of different materials but the results have not been
    acceptable, as MR susceptibility artifacts create 'voids' in the generated
    signal, up to 4 times the actual diameter of the fiducial, resulting in post
    image-processing issues. Although I'm sure there may be suggestions of
    different ways I could quantify this motion, I need somewhat of a 'gold
    standard' for my study (which involves creating a non-invasive measuring
    technique), and I believe fiducial markers are as close to 'gold' as I can

    If anyone can point me to a study they may be familiar with, I would be
    over-joyed - again, the key issue here is the size of the fiducials; there
    are many MR-compatible materials that will cause relatively small
    susceptibility artifacts, but even 'small' susceptibility artifacts are
    problematic in my study. Additionally, if anyone can recommend any
    unpublished or non-peer reviewed work, I would still jump at the opportunity
    to possibly determine an appropriate fiducial material for my study.

    Many thanks - as is common, I will gladly post a summary of responses I

    Tim Bhatnagar
    PhD Candidate
    Mechanical Engineering
    University of British Columbia