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Summary of replies re: weightlifting kinematics request

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  • Summary of replies re: weightlifting kinematics request

    Dear BIOMCH-L subscribers:

    Some time ago (my apologies for the delay) I posted the following

    I am currently involved in assessing some of the kinematic parameters
    involved in the Snatch and Clean and Jerk lifts. To this point I have
    focused primarily on bar trajectory, vert. bar vel. and a number of rel.
    and absolute joint angles (trunk, thigh, hip and knee). I am looking for
    comparative data and/or suggested references of studies which have
    examined weightlifting kinematics. I have not yet done much looking for
    info. (I am beginning my search with the list) but I do have the Soviet
    Sport Science Reviews which have provided some useful comparisons.

    I welcome all suggestions and would like to hear from others who have
    been involved in similar investigations. I almost forgot, I am looking
    at the "sagittal" plane kinematics of the lifts, 2D analysis. Thanks in
    advance. If there seems to be enough interest and responses I will post
    a summary to the list.

    ************************************************** ***********************

    Here is a summary of the responses I received to this request. My thanks
    to all those who took the time to respond. The information has been very

    ================================================== ======================
    From: ROBIN

    two references on weightlifting which come to mind are:

    Enoka, R.M. (1979). The pull in Olympic weightlifting.
    Medicine and Science in Sports, 11, 131-137.

    Enoka, R.M. (1988) Load- and skill-related changes in segmental
    contributions to a weightlifting movement. Medicine and Science in
    Sports and Exercise, 20, 178-187.

    You may also be interested in:

    Burgess-Limerick, R., Abernethy, B. & Neal, R.J. (1993). Relative
    phase quantifies interjoint coordination. J. Biomech. 26, 91-94.

    which describes the methods we have been using to describe manual
    lifting of an industrial nature.

    This research (my Ph.D.) examines the normal pattern of coordination
    of lower limb joints during self-selected lifting (i.e., the way
    people lift when not told what to do). We have found that this
    pattern involves a deviation from synchronous coordination of the
    knee, hip and lumbar vertebral joints which has the functional
    consequence of reducing muscular effort. I believe the pattern
    exhibited by weight lifters is qualitatively similar and I would be
    interested in your comments based on your data from weightlifters.

    To elaborate: Self-selected lifting from a normal standing position
    to pick up a load at floor level and place on a shelf at shoulder
    height involves first flexion of the ankle, knee, hip and lumbar
    vertebral joints to lower the hands to grasp the load, and then
    extension of the joints as the load is lifted. While flexion and
    extension occur at the same time, they do not occur occur in
    synchrony and the pattern of deviation from synchrony is consistent.
    Rapid knee extension occurs in the early part of the lifting
    phase. Rapid hip extension is delayed slightly and rapid extension of
    the lumbar vertebral joints is delayed substantially. This pattern of
    interjoint coordination has a number of functional consequences.
    During the early lifting phase (when load acceleration is greatest)
    the lumbar vertebral complex is flexed by about 45 degrees, and
    remains relatively static. The trunk extensor musculature is thus
    lengthened and not shortening rapidly, and thus is relatively strong.
    Similarly, estimation of the length changes of the biarticular
    hamstrings (using equations based on cadaveric data) revealed that
    the consequence of rapid knee extension during early lifting is that
    the onset of rapid hamstring shortening is delayed, thus maintaining
    the strength of the hamstrings early in the lifting phase.
    In addition, the relatively isometric contraction of the biarticular
    hamstrings (in concert with cocontraction of the monarticular knee
    extensors) allows the hamstrings to act as a tendon and thus
    (paradoxically) the monoarticular knee extensors conribute to hip
    extension during early lifting.

    The data supporting these statements is presented in a paper recently
    accepted by Human Factors viz: Burgess-Limerick, R., Abernethy, B.,
    Neal., R.J., & Kippers, V. (in press). Self-selected manual lifting
    technique: Functional consequences of the interjoint coordination.
    Human Factors.

    The expected date of pulication of this paper is June 1995, so if
    you (or anyone else) are interested in more details before then I'd be
    happy to forward a copy of the manuscript.

    Robin Burgess-Limerick
    Department of Human Movement Studies
    The University of Queensland

    __________________________________________________ ______

    Robin Burgess-Limerick

    Department of Human Movement Studies
    The University of Queensland 4072

    Ph. +61 07 365 6817 Fax +61 07 365 6877
    ================================================== ======================

    From: Kim Daneen Barber

    I remember reading research on what you are looking for, so I will go back and
    try to find where it was. I also wanted to say Hi. I am from Regina, but
    finishing off a master's degree here at the University of Oregon. I will try
    to recall where I read the info.

    Kim D. Barber, ATC

    ================================================== ======================
    From: (Paul Klein)

    Dear John,

    Unfortunately I can give you no information on weightlifting. But I am
    highly interested mainly with two parameters during weightlifting: the angle
    of lumbar lordosis and secundo the angle of knee flexion together with the
    hip flexion angle (both synchronized).
    Maybe, after you get some information you could help me find or provide some
    Good luck!

    * Klein Paul Ph.D. *
    * Institut for Physical Therapy and *
    * Rehabilitation *
    * Free University of Brussels *
    * CP 168, Avenue P. Heger, 28 *
    * 1050 Brussels, Belgium *
    * *
    * Phone 32-2-6502470 Fax: 32-2-6502473 *
    * *

    ================================================== ======================

    Try the following:

    Hakkinen et al. (1984). Biomechanical changes in the olympic weightlifting
    .... Scand.J.Sports.Sci.6(2):57-66.

    Garhammer, (1976). Biomechanical analysis of .... In Biomechanics of Sports
    and Kinanthropometry, Eds: F.Landry and W.A.R.Orban. Symposia Specialists
    Inc. (Int. Congress of Phys Activity Sciences, Quebec City, July 11-16,
    1976) pp.475-484.

    Enoka (1979). The pull in Olympic weightlifting. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 11(2

    Garhammer (1985). Biomechanical profiles of Olympic weightlifters. Int. J.
    Sports Biomech. 1:122-130.

    Burdett (1982). Biomechanics of the snatch ... Res. Q. 53(3):193-197.

    Kauhanen et al. (1984). A biomechanical analysis ... Scand. J. Sports Sci.

    Connan et al. (1979). Biomechanical analysis of ... Proc. Int Congress of
    Biomech, Warsaw 1979. In:Biomechanics VII-B pp.313-321. Eds Morecki,
    Fidelus, Kedzior and Wit.

    Garhammer (1980). Power production by... Med.Sci Sports Exerc. 12(1):54-60.

    The latest one where you can find many references of Garhammer:

    Garhammer (1991) A Comparison of maximal Power outputs ... Int.J. Sport
    Biomech. 7:3-11.

    ================================================== ======================
    From: "Ronald Fredrick Zernicke"

    Check with John Garhammer, at California State University Long
    Beach, in California. John has done a fair amount of work in this
    area. Some of his work was published in Med Sci Sports Exerc.


    Ron Zernicke

    ================================================== ======================


    Dear Dr. Barden

    The D.Phil. thesis of J.J. Collins (1991 or 1990) from the University of
    Oxford, Dept. of Engineering Science, has a section about knee loading in
    weightlifters based on a sagittal plane kinematic analysis. I don't know if
    this work has been published in a journal or not-a database search under his
    name for the years 1989-1993 should turn it up if it exists. If you have no
    luck, E-mail me and I'll copy the relevant chapter of the thesis from the

    Dave Wilson
    Dept. of Engineering Science
    Univ. of Oxford

    ================================================== ======================

    From: Michael Feltner

    I suggest you look for work conducted by the following individuals:

    John Garhammer
    Jeffery Lander
    Tom McLaughlin

    They have conducted investigations and have published numerous
    papers related to weightlifting.
    ************************************************** ******************

    Michael Feltner

    Dept. of Sports Medicine & Physical Ed.
    Pepperdine University
    Malibu, CA 90263 USA
    (Office) 310 456-4312
    (FAX) 310-456-4426

    ************************************************** ******************

    From: Grant Shaffner

    A chap named Kevin Brown, a graduate student in the Dept. of Mechanical
    Engineering at M.I.T., has done some interesting work on applying the
    kinematics and kinetics of human weightlifting to mechanical robots. He
    has published a paper on this. I thought the reference might be appropriate.

    For more info, contact:

    Prof. H. Asada, MIT, (617) 253-6257

    Hope it's useful.


    ================================================== ======================

    From: "Daniel P. Ferris"

    Dear John,

    In reply to your request for information on Olympic weightlifting
    biomechanics, I can only suggest that you try to contact John Garhammer at
    California State University-Long Beach. I do not have his E-mail address
    or phone number, but he could definitely help you in your search. He has
    published numerous studies relating to the field.

    Dan Ferris
    Human Performance Laboratory
    University of Miami
    Coral Gables, FL
    ================================================== ======================

    From: Deborah King


    I am writing in response to your query to biomech-l concerning weightlifting
    kinematics. For the last few years the United States Olympic Committe
    (sport science and technology division) has repeatedly performed
    kinematic and ground reaction force studies on the US resident team at
    the Olympic Training Center. I don't remember all the variables they
    are interested in a few are - timing of peak acceleration of the bar with
    hip extension, inequality/equality of left and right ground reaction
    forces, and barbell trajectory. There are two people you could
    contact: Dr. Sarah Smith, biomechanist, Sport Science and
    Technology, USOC, One Olympic Plaza, Colorado Springs, CO 80909,
    (719) 578-4516 or Scott (I can't remember his last name) at
    Converse USA, (biomechanics lab) in Massachusetts. I don't
    happen to have his phone, but he should be on the biomech-l
    list of subscribers. He worked at the USOC as a research assistant
    (as did I) and was in charge of the weightlifting studies.

    Hope this helps,

    Deborah King
    WSU Inst. for Rehab. Res and Med.
    Dayton, OH 45324
    ================================================== ======================

    From: Mike Whittle

    Dear John:
    A few years ago, I looked at knee joint mechanics during a clean-
    and-jerk lift. The reference is:

    Computerised analysis of knee moments during weightlifting
    Whittle MW, Sargeant AJ, Johns L
    Biomechanics XI-B eds. G. de Groot, A.P. Hollander, P.A. Huijing,
    G.J. van Ingen Schenau. Amsterdam: Free University Press, 1988

    One thing to watch out for in this type of study is that during the "squat",
    forces are transmitted through the soft tissues at the back of the thigh and
    calf, as well as through the knee mechanism.

    I hope this information is of use to you.

    With best wishes,

    Mike Whittle, MD, PhD
    Cline Chair of Rehabilitation Technology
    The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga
    ================================================== ======================

    Thanks again to all who responded. I hope this info. can be of benefit
    to someone else.

    John M. Barden
    Sport Science Coordinator
    Faculty of Physical Activity Studies
    University of Regina
    Regina, Saskatchewan
    S4S 0A2 Canada
    Bitnet: barden@uregina1.bitnet
    Ph: (306) 585-4698
    Fax: (306) 585-4854