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Summary: Custom upper extremity marker sets

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  • Summary: Custom upper extremity marker sets

    Original post:
    We have been using Vicon's MX system with Nexus software to study the ergonomics of surgeons performing laparoscopic surgery. We used Vicon's Plug-in-gait (PIG) model for the kinematic calculations. We are interested in evaluating wrist and hand movements. Previously we encountered problems with the PIG model because the wrist extension and flexion angles seemed to be "flipping" between the X and Y graphs depending on what position the forearm was in (e.g. Having the palm of the hand pointing upward vs. downward). The upper limb model seems to address that problem, however we are searching for more sophisticated upper extremity models. Is anyone conducting movement analysis on tasks that involve a great deal of forearm rotation? If yes, what market set and model are you using to best calculate the wrist angles? Are there any modified PIG or custom-designed models that exist that better capture the wrist angles? Thank you.

    Suggestions summarized:
    Using model developing software like Visual 3D or Motion Monitor to calculate joint angles from the c3d files is a better option because it allows you to manipulate the angle sequence. Changing the angle sequence may also help eliminate issues related to gimbal lock. Gimbal lock may occur when you loose a degree of freedom because two of the axis become parallel. In this situation the movement can only occur in two dimensions. Avoid this problem by adjusting the angle sequence according to the movement task so that the axis with the greatest angles is first in the sequence.

    Suggested models included:
    Upper Extremity (UE) model from San Diego (however it was developed for baseball)
    Model described by International Society of Biomechanics
    Model described in Ergonomics (Brown, J. N. A., Albert,W. J., & Croll, J. (2007). A new input device: Comparison to three commercially available mouses. Ergonomics, 50, 208-227.)
    Model described by Metcalf et al. (2008), Validation and application of a computational model for wrist and hand movements using surface markers. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering. Vol 55 issue 3.
    NIOSH developed a 6DOF model of the hand and fingers, and presented its kinematic and kinetic performance at GCMAS and ASB this year.
    Another model for dart and hammer throwing motions was developed at The University of Texas Medical Branch.
    Suggestions for building a custom model
    Model which uses a 6 degree of freedom approach
    Use cluster marker sets: You may place a cluster on the proximal forearm, distal forearm and/or hand.
    Marker placement on the olecranon to define the forearm vector (olecranon is better option than lateral epicondyle because it is located on the ulna as opposed to the humerus)
    Marker placement on the 3rd metacarpal base and head of hand (to track the orientation of the hand)

    Discretion has been used since some custom marker models have not been published.

    Magnetic tracking was also suggested because there is no line-of-sight required, can be worn underneath clothing and tracks with in full 6DOF.

    Thank you.

    Martin Warner MSc BSc
    Experimental Officer
    Faculty of Health Sciences
    University of Southampton

    Clark Andersen
    Division of Biomechanics and Bone Physiology Research
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation
    The University of Texas Medical Branch

    Jim Thomas

    Sean Osis
    Human Performance Laboratory
    University of Calgary

    Matthew B. A. McCullough
    Assistant Professor
    Department of Chemical, Biological and Bioengineering
    North Carolina A&T State University

    Paulo Lucareli
    Movement Analysis
    Albert Einstein Hospital
    Sao Paulo-Brazil

    Arnel Aguinaldo, MA, ATC
    Director, Center for Human Performance
    Motion Analysis Laboratory
    Rady Childrens Hospital

    John Brown

    Frank L Buczek Jr, PhD
    Branch Chief, HELD/ECTB
    Coordinator, MSD Cross Sector Program
    National Institute for Occupational
    Safety and Health (NIOSH)

    Neil Schell
    Research and Technology Applications

    Michael Lawrence
    Human Performance Lab
    Research Assistant
    Department of Physical Therapy
    University of New England

    Andrew Kraszewski, MS
    PhD Candidate, Ergonomics and Biomechanics, New York University
    Research Engineer
    Leon Root, MD Motion Analysis Laboratory
    Rehabilitation Department
    Hospital for Special Surgery
    Tameka A. Clanton, MS, ATC

    Research Assistant
    Department of Surgery/MASTRI
    University of Maryland Medical Center
    22 South Greene Street
    Baltimore, MD 21201-1593
    (410) 328-8432 (office)