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Following is a summary of the responses received as a result of my query
regarding movement patters of the head. Thanks to all those who sent

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From: winters@pluto.ee.cua.edu (Jack Winters)
To: drr100f@oduvm.cc.odu.edu
Subject: Movement patterns of head

Diego, several items that may be of interest:

1. Fast horizontal head tracking:
As a grad student of L. Stark's at UC Berkeley, I was a subject for
number of experiments, published by Zangemeister et al. in the
early 1980's (Exp. Neurol., 71:76-91, 1981; 75: 369-406; Biol. Cybern,
41:19-32, 33-45, 1981, etc.), some involving normals, others
pathological conditions) and by Hannaford in the mid-1980's
(e.g., Biol. Cybern., 57:321-330, 1987). 2-4 EMG's and horizontal
(axial) rotation collected.

2. While at Arizona State Univ., several of my students collected
head tracking data in 3D, for both natural and fast movements
(vertical, horizontal, oblique, "box" patterns) - 3D motion and
8 EMGs measures (e.g., Peles thesis, 1989; Winters & Peles, Mult.
Musc Sys. book I edited in 1990; Winters et al. in Spine. 9:1178-1185).
We only did about 10 "normal" subjects and 20 "whiplash" subjects.
More importantly, a company called Whiplash Analysis Inc was formed
in Phoenix, and since I left (to east coast) the've done at last
count over 60 subjects (normals & injured), and have a patent on
a technique for using the 3D screw axis to assess function -- they'll
probably respond separately, I'd guess. Some interesting data.

3. The Rehab Robotics group at the AI duPont Inst. in Wilmington,
Delaware recently collected a good deal of data on 3-D ranges of
motion and max isometric strength for the head-neck system, and
have a conf. proceeding (4th Intern. Rehab Robotics) and a tech.
report nearing completion. I'm now working with them on some
new experiments aimed at determining impedance fields for the
head-neck system via several techniques, mainly frequency response
(position input, force measured, for various position operating ranges
and instruction sets) data. Results will be compared to some
simulations I'll be doing. Overall objective: the optimize use of
the head as a control system for spinal-cord injured.

4. We've had several head-neck mechancial musculoskeletal models
since the late 1980's, and last year the modelling framework was
put into a dynamics package called SPACAR, from Delt Univ. This
model serves several (competing) objectives: Frans van der Helm
and myself are using various versions for theoretical studies of
posture and stability; with Univ. of Delaware, I'll be using it for
"impedance field" and "control systems" research, while with
Whiplash Analysis, it will eventually be used better identify
where injuries are located, etc. The trouble is that some of
research needs beg for the model to be simplified, some for it
to be more complex, so the modelling framework's still somewhat
in flux. Two head-neck models seem to be evolving, one for
"control", one for "clinical assessment".

Jack Winters
Catholic Univ., Washington, DC
z winters pluto 8/04/94
'Jack Winters drr100f@oduvm.cc.od 8/04/94 Movement patterns of head
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Date: Fri, 05 Aug 1994 09:22:41 -0500 (EST)
From: Tim Barker
Subject: Re: Cervical Spine
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You might like to follow-up an abstract that I saw from 17th Annual Meeting of
the American Society of Biomechanics (published in Journal of Biomechanics
vol 27, n 5, May 1994, page 630) :

Three dimensional kinematic analyses of control and whiplash subjects using
instantaneous helical axis parameters
T Ribaudo 1, K Long 2, P Osterbauer 2, G Yamaguchi 1 & A Fuhr 2
1 Dept of Chemical, Bio and Materials Engineering, Arizona State Uni,
Tempe, AZ 85283, U.S.A
2 Whiplash Analysis Inc. Phoenix, AZ 85018, U.S.A.


Tim Barker, PhD t.barker@qut.edu.au
Scholl of Mechanical
& Manufacturing Engineering
Queensland University of Technology
Brisbane. QLD 4001
z t.barker qut 8/04/94
'Tim Barker DRR100F@ODUVM.CC.OD 8/05/94*Cervical Spine
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Date: Sat, 06 Aug 1994 22:10:05 +1000
From: P.Bryner@pitvax.xx.rmit.edu.au
Subject: Cervical SPine,
Sender: Peter Bryner
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Dear Diego,
Dr Trianos, formerly of National College of Chiropractic in Chicago USA,
and now at the Texas Back Institute (I think) has looked at this problem.
Unfortunately I don't have his address at this stage. If you have difficulty
contacting him call me back and I'll chase his address up.

Peter Bryner,
RMIT, Department of Chiropractic and Osteopathy
z X94402 pitvax 8/06/94
'P.Bryner@pitvax.xx. DRR100F@ODUVM.CC.OD 8/06/94 Cervical SPine,