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"Surrogate" muscle and search for Matrox PIP 1024 B

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  • "Surrogate" muscle and search for Matrox PIP 1024 B

    Biomch-l users:

    Thanks to all of those who responded to the request concerning
    surrogate muscle. I would also like to ask if anyone has a Matrox 1024 B
    framegrabber board (used in the Peak5 Motion Analysis System) that they would
    be willing to sell for $250 or so.

    Posted Oct 20th:

    We are attempting to develop ways of mimicking active muscle forces in
    cadaveric specimens. The most simplistic way of doing this is to put a
    spring in series with an attachment to the muscle belly or to the
    tendon. We would appreciate information concerning the use of
    "surrogate" muscles, particularly with regard to the following areas:

    1) appropriate spring stiffnesses, especially for the triceps
    surae/Achilles tendon complex
    2) appropriate initial forces/tensions to apply
    3) reliable attachment techniques to the tendon or muscle during dynamic
    impacts (i.e., suturing, freeze clamping, special adhesives, etc)
    4) the use of a pulley system to apply static muscle forces

    Thank you in advance for you time and input.

    Brian P. Self

    ************************************************** *************
    Summary of Responses

    1) The condition of the cadaver specimens and the duration of the tests
    must be considered when determining the method of fixation. Don't rely
    on dead tissue to support loads during dynamic situation- attach directly
    to bone.

    2) Some references which might be helpful are Wickiewicz 1983 (discusses
    architecture) and Hoy, Zajac, and Gordon, 1990 J. Biomech 23:157-69.

    3) A system at UCSD wraps the tendon stump around a pin, then clamps down
    on the bight and pin to avoid stress concentrations in the tissue.

    4) Neil Sharkey at the Sacramento Medical Center uses freeze clamps
    attached to computer controlled actuators to apply forces at the shoulder

    5) Forces in the Achilles tendon can be as high as 10 x body weight for
    dynamic movement and 3-4 x BW during static toe raises according to one

    6) A commercial product called "Muscle Wires" applies a force under the
    control of an electric current. For more information, contact
    Mondo.tronics, Inc at

    7) Many researchers have sutured lines to the tendon and applied dead
    weights to the tissue by means of pulleys.

    8) One investigator mentioned the lambda theory of Feldman, which
    proposes that muscle acts as a variable stiffness spring. If a motion
    occurred during a time when the stiffness was relatively constant, then a
    spring of appropriate stiffness could be used as a surrogate muscle.

    Thanks again to everyone who responded to my inquiry.