Thanks to

Wilhelm Ludwig Bauer
Richie Gill
Jeff Ives
Seogyong Lee
Ken Quarrie
Mike Sanders
Elaine R. Serina
Danny Too
Jan-Paul van Wingerden

who responded to my request "Biomechanics of Martial Arts".

My original request was:

> Dear netters,
> as a sports biomechanist I am interested in the biomechanics of
> martial arts since a long time. Unfortunately I have not come across a
> project dealing with it. So, I decided to start with the analysis of
> rotational movements (like spinning heel kick). I would appreciate any
> form of literature pertaining to this, as well as to the general literature
> of the biomechanics of martial arts. Any information and advice is
> welcome. Please answer by E-mail. I will post a summary of replies.
> Manfred

Summary of replies (Literature sorted in alphabetical order):

Lutz Bauer and Elke von Oehsen
Discovering common biomechanical factors of different karate techniques. In
Biomechanics XI-B, pp. 129, International Series on Biomechanics, Volume
7-B , Free University Press Amsterdam, 1988

Chuang TY; Lieu DK.
A parametric study of the thoracic injury potential of basic taekwondo kicks.
Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 1992 Aug, 114(3):346-51.

M.S. Feld, R.E. McNair, and S.R. Wilk
The Physics of Karate.
I think it was in Scientific American or
Physics Today around 1979. The paper discusses some simple impact and
dynamic physics but does not look into rotational motion with respect to
human attacks.
Hobusch, F.L. & McClellan T. (1990). The karate roundhouse kick.
National Strength and Conditioning Association Journal, volume 12, number
6, pages 6-9,84-89.

Park, Y,J. A biomechanical analysis of taekwondo front-kicks. (Thesis)
University of Minnesota. 1990. University Microfilms International.

Pieter,F. Movement analysis of taekwondo techniques. Asian Journal of
Physical Education (Taiwan). 1987. 10 (3) 45-58.

Serina, E. R. and Lieu, D. K. Thoracic injury potential of basic competition
taekwondo kicks. 1991. Journal of Biomechanics. 24 (10), 951-960.

Shirley, M. E. The taekwondo side kick: a kinesiological analysis with
strength and conditioning principles. National Strength and Conditioning
Association Journal (USA). 1992, 14(5) 7-8;72-78.

There is a special of scientific american concerning the mechanics of rotation
and moments in nature. It also deals with rotations and moments during judo
and aikido.

I do not have any specific data, but you might try to contact Everett Harman.
I believe he is now at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Occupational
Medicine, Natick, MA 01760-5007, USA.

>From Seogyong Lee information on data/literature sources related to
Taekwondo including the description of his own activities.

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Dr. Manfred Vieten PO Box 5560
University of Konstanz Tel.: +49-7531-88-3565
Universitaetsstrasse 10 Fax.: +49-7531-88-3026
78434 Konstanz E-Mail:
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