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    Hello Bio-Netters,

    Again thank you to all that responded to my question on 1-24-95 regarding
    information on spring type goniometers. The information we exactly what
    we needed. Following is an edited list of all the reponses I recieved up
    until 1:30pm (central) on1-25-94.

    Thanks again,


    Dear Fabian:

    I think you may be referring to Penny and Giles goniometers which
    are manufactured in Great Britain.

    Lou Osternig

    University of Oregon

    You may be thinking of the Penny and Giles elgons.
    I have a USA address, but no phone no.
    Penny & Giles, Inc.
    2716 Ocean Park Blvd.
    Suite 1005
    Santa Monica, CA 90405

    Good luck,
    Jeff Ives, PhD
    Dept Exercise Science
    Campbell University
    Buies Creek, NC 27506


    The contact is Penny & Giles Biometrics, Balckwood Gwent NP@ 2YD, U.K.
    Ph (0495) 228000, Fax (0495) 229 389

    You might like to contact Dr Ian Thomas by email on 100413.722@COMPUSERVE.COM.

    He listens to this list so he may very well contact you himself.


    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
    Dr Timothy M Barker email
    Lecturer in Medical Engineering phone (07) 864 5103
    School of Mechanical & Manufacturing fax (07) 864 1469
    Queensland University of Technology
    GPO Box 2434
    Brisbane. QLD 4001
    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


    Penny Giles makes a series of unobtrusive TWO degree of freedom
    goniometers which are made up two small endblocks connected with
    a 12-18mm cord which is laced with strain gages. The cord has a
    spring covering it for protection, so perhaps this is the product
    to which you refer. (Also, their central hub is in England)
    To measure the third degree of freedom, P&G also sells a torsiometer
    of similar construct.

    After doing quite a bit of research on the subject, these are
    the only goniometers of their type I have come across. The
    advantages are that they are small and unobtrusive. The drawbacks
    are that they are delicate, only accurate to about +-2 degrees,
    and (in my opinion) too expensive. Another grievance is that
    the supporting power supply/amplifier can only handle four
    channels (flex/ext, ab/add for two joints). Therefore, to
    analyze both sides of a persons legs during gait, two power
    supplies must be present.

    So, as you see, the goniometers have their strengths and weaknesses.
    In the end, however, I found that they were the best alternative
    for my application and purchased them about a month ago.

    Also, be aware that the opinions I expressed above are strictly
    personal and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of other
    colleagues at this institution.

    Below is more information on Penny and Giles:
    tel: (310) 393-0014
    fax: (310) 450-9860
    addr: 2716 Ocean Park Blve. Suite 1005
    Santa Monica, CA 90405-5209

    ask for Neal Handler and tell him Ben from the U of MN sent ya!

    Good Luck.


    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~
    Benjamin N. Dunn | University of Minnesota | [ ] [ ]
    Research Assistant | 125 Mechanical Engineering | // \ / \\
    tel: (612) 626-7310 | 111 Church St. SE | [ ] [ ] [ ]
    FAX: (612) 624-1398 | Minneapolis, MN 55455 | U of MN
    e-mail: | |
    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~

    The goniometers you referred to I believe are made by:

    Penny and Giles Biometrics Ltd.
    Blackwood Gwent
    NP2 2YD United Kingdom

    Phone (0495) 228000
    telex 498135
    fax: (0495) 229389

    Marcus P. Besser, PhD []
    Assistant Director, Human Performance Laboratory _ /_/
    Assistant Professsor, Department of Physical Therapy / /
    Thomas Jefferson University / \
    Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA 19107-5233 /_ \_
    Phone: 1-215-955-1645 Fax: 1-215-923-2475 email:

    Dear Fabian,

    We have used goniometers made by bonding a long strain gauge to a
    very thin strip of shim steel. We originally got the idea from someone
    at the University of Strathclyde I think. I can't find the preprint of
    the paper giving details, and it is rather dificult to describe. However,
    if you send me your fax number I will fax you some information.


    Alan Walmsley
    School of Physical Education
    Division of Sciences
    University of Otago
    Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Ph (03) 4799122, Fax (03) 4798309

    Dear Fabian,
    try to contact Penny & Giles. Herebelow is the address:

    Penny & Giles
    Blackwood Limied
    Blackwood Gwent
    NP2 2YD United Kingdom
    Telephone:+44 495 228000
    Fax: +44 495 229389

    Good luck|


    Marina Torre
    Laboratorio di Ingegneria Biomedica
    Istituto Superiore di Sanita'
    Viale Regina Elena 299
    00161 ROMA

    this is most probably the Peny & Giles goniometer from UK.
    in single axis rotations they are very good and clever as the measure
    of rotation is independent of the centre of rotation but the 2D model
    is problematic when movement about the 3rd axis occurs.


    Dear Fabian,

    I saw a paper in Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical
    Engineers (Part H) Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Vol. 207,
    No. H4, p. 207-210.

    The article is called: "An instrumented glove for monitoring MCP
    joint motion." by D.T. Rand and A.C. Nicol. They are in the
    Bioengineering Unit, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland.

    This involved using a lycra glove which had been instrumented with a
    low-profile electrogoniometer for measuring index and middle finger
    mcp flexion/extension motion.

    They describe the electrogoniometer as consisting of flexible
    strain-gauged core wire housed inside microbore Teflon tubing.

    I hope this is of some help to you, though I don't know about
    measuring motion in three planes.


    Victor Waide
    Victor Waide
    Bioengineering Research Centre
    Mechanical Engineering Department
    University College Dublin
    Belfield, Dublin 4


    >From what you wrote, I guess you are talking about ELECTRO-
    used them myself for my research.
    They produce and sell electrogoniometers in different sizes,
    according to the joint you need to measure (from small finger joints
    to knee joint, etc.). They also sell the amplifier for these electro-
    About this point, many people, in the past, have complained about
    voltage drifts in the electrogoniometer output, thus leading to
    inaccuracies. I got in touch with the company more than once, and
    they say that voltage drifts do occur when their electrogoniometers
    are connected to 'home-made' amplifiers, i.e., amplifiers which are
    different from the those they sell together with their electro-
    Therefore, if you are going to enquire about this equipment to the
    company, ask also for quotations about their amplifiers, since
    buying the latters would avoid many future problems.
    Well, after this introduction, I think I should give you their

    telephone: +44-0495-228000
    telex : +44-498135
    fax : +44-0495-229389

    I hope this information will be useful to you and in case you need
    more information, please do not hesitate to contact me.

    Best regards,

    Fax: +44-21-4144121

    Dear Fabian,

    I believe the goniometers you are looking for are manufactured by
    Penny and Giles in the UK. I have two addresses:

    Penny and Giles, Blackwood Ltd.,
    Blackwood, Gwent,
    NP2 2YD, United Kingdom

    Tel: (0495) 228000
    FAX: (0495) 229389

    Penny and Giles Inc.,
    2716 Ocean Park Blvd #1005,
    Santa Monica,
    California 90405

    Tel: (213) 393 0014
    FAX: (213) 450 9860

    Hope this helps

    Adrian Liggins PhD PEng
    Research Engineer
    Orthopaedic Research Laboratory
    University Hospital
    London, Ontario
    N6A 5A5 Canada

    I believe you are referring to "torsiometers" made by Penny & Giles.

    Penny & Giles Inc.
    2716 )cean Park Boulevard
    Suite 1005
    Santa Monica, CA 90405
    (213) 393-0014

    This address is a few years old but I believe it is accurate.

    Larry Abraham, EdD
    Kinesiology & Health Education
    The University of Texas at Austin
    Austin, TX 78712 USA
    (512)471-1273 FAX (512)471-8914

    The goniometers are made by Penny & Giles Biometrics Ltd.
    There are represented in the US by:
    Penny & Giles Inc.
    2716 Ocean Park Blvd., Suite 1005
    Santa Monica, CA 90405
    (213) 393-0014
    Fax: (213) 450-9860

    I have a couple biaxial M180 goniometers. I have been using one axis at a
    time because of the cross-talk between the two axes. Good Luck.

    I have used some flexible twin axis electrogoniometers made by Penny and
    Giles in Santa Monica California. They have a small flat plastic "bar" at
    each end that can be attached to the skin, connected by a spring which can
    measure two degrees of freedom. They come in several sizes. I don't have
    any more information about the company and I am no longer at the facility
    where I used them. I will caution you that the smallest goniometers, for
    the fingers, are VERY fragile but the size we used on the wrist worked
    quite well.

    The device you are refering to is made by Penny and Giles located in
    Blackwood Gwent, England. The phone number is (0495) 228000 and the fax is
    (0495) 229389. The contact we have used in the United States is Neal
    Handler who is located in Santa Monica, CA his phone number is (310)
    393-0014 and his fax is (310) 450-9860.


    We noted your posting on Biomch-l concerning the spring goniometers - we
    are the Company who make the "Spring - electrogoniometers" - we haven't yet read
    the posting, but can we help ?

    Regards Dr Ian Thomas, Penny and Giles Biometrics Ltd., Newbridge Road,
    Blackwood, Gwent UK NP2 2YD

    Tel +44 1495 228000 Fax +44 1495 221079 Email 100413.722@COMPUSERVE.COM

    you need Penny and Giles goniometers
    Try contacting Malcolm Ellis at MIE Medical Research Ltd.
    Upper Wortley Rd. Leeds. UK (tell him I sent you!)
    Philip Helliwell
    RRRU, 36, Clarendon Road, LEEDS, LS2 9NZ, UK
    Tel: +44 113 2334935 Fax: +44 113 2445533