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  • responses to trip and fall

    Thanks to all who took the time to respond to my
    question regarding the kinematics of trip and fall.
    I received some excellent information which will be extremely
    helpful. Following are the reponses.

    Hsieh-Ching Chen partially considered this problem in his
    1993 Ph.D Thesis in Mechanical Engineering at the University
    of Michigan, Ann Arbor. You can get it through interlibrary
    loan or University Microfilms, Inc. See the last chapter on
    the modeling of recovery from a forward fall.

    We have investigated slipping during the early stance phase of walking. This
    usually leads to backward slipping, but there might be some useful
    information for you in the following publications:

    Strandberg L and Lanshammar H
    The dynamics of slipping accidents. Journal of Occupational Accidents, 3, pp
    153 162, 1981.

    Strandberg L and Lanshammar H
    On the biomechanics of slipping accidents. Biomechanics VIII A, eds. H.
    Matsui, K. Kobayashi, Human Kinetic Publishers, Champain, Illinois, pp 397
    402, 1982.

    Best wishes - Haakan
    * From: Haakan Lanshammar
    * Tel: +46-18-18 30 33
    * Fax: +46-18-50 36 11
    * Systems and Control Group
    * Uppsala University
    * Box 27
    * S-751 03 Uppsala, SWEDEN

    John Brault,

    If you have access to any online search mechanisms (e.g., medline), then
    you might try doing an author search on Mark Grabiner of the Cleveland
    Clinic Foundation. He's been known to trip up a few people (for scientific
    purposes of course). Good luck on your search for info.

    Peter M. Quesada, PhD
    Ohio State University

    John (and Jeff?),
    For information concerning the kinematics/kinetics of slips
    and falls, you might try contacting two persons who did some
    work on this (gait on slippery surfaces) while at the Univ. of
    Massachusetts. They are:
    Tim Eng (now at Nike in Oregon, sorry no more address info) and
    Dennis O'Connor (now at Steadman Sports Medicine Foundation
    in Vail, CO. Phone: 303.479.9797 x276).
    For references on slips and falls you may want to try the
    gerontology literature and the postural control literature--
    while much of the literature may be on the elderly, young
    groups are often used for comparison.
    Good luck,

    Jeff Ives, Ph.D.
    Dept. of Exercise Science
    Campbell University
    Buies Creek, NC 27506

    Dear Jeff,

    Here are some references that I pulled out from my gait
    bibliography. The word "fall" also selected the time of year so
    ignore those references! Hope this helps.

    Kit Vaughan

    Crowninshield RD
    1983 Fall
    A physiologically based criterion for muscle force predictions on
    Bulletin of the Hospital for Joint Diseases Orthopaedic
    Institution, 43(2):164-170
    resultant joint forces, electromyography, optimization

    Do MC; Breniere Y; Brenguier P
    A biomechanical study of balance recovery during the fall forward
    Journal of Biomechanics, 15(12):933-939
    stride length and frequency, linear velocity, abnormal walking

    Do MC; Breniere Y
    1986 Sep
    Characteristics of the gait induced by a fall (abstract)
    Fifth Meeting of the European Society of Biomechanics, Berlin,
    West Germany
    abnormal walking, kinematics, kinetics

    Dorca Coll A; Cespedes Cespedes T; Prats Climent B; Dorca Coll MR
    (Why do old people fall down?)
    Revista De Enfermeria (Barcelona) 13(139):23-27
    aged gait, kinematics

    Gage JR
    1983 Fall
    Gait analysis for decision-making in cerebral palsy
    Bulletin of the Hospital for Joint Diseases Orthopaedic
    Institution, 43(2):147-163
    cerebral palsy, child gait, electromyography, therapy and
    rehabilitation, telemetry, effects of surgery

    Guimaraes RM
    Characteristics of the gait in old people who fall
    International Rehabilitation Medicine, 2(4):177-180
    aged gait, kinetics

    Murphy J; Isaacs B
    The post-fall syndrome. A study of 36 elderly patients
    Gerontology, 28(4):265-270
    pathology, therapy and rehabilitation, psychological problems,

    Simoneau GG; Cavanagh PR; Ulbrecht JS; Leibouritz HW; Tyrrell RA
    The influence of visual factors on fall-related kinematic
    variables during stair descent by older women
    Journal of Gerontology, 46(6):M188-M195
    female gait, ascending descending, aged gait, statistics, vision,
    foot, movie photography, stride length and frequency

    Strandberg L
    1983 Jan
    On accident analysis and slip-resistance measurement
    Ergonomics, 26(1):11-32
    computer modelling, foot, linear velocity, angular displacement,
    force plate, work energy power, angular velocity, television,

    Strandberg L; Hildeskog L; Ottosson A-L
    Slip resistance of footwear assessed by walking experiments
    Biomechanics X-B (ed. B. Jonsson), Human Kinetics Publishers,
    Champaign, Illinois, 919-926.
    normal walking, force plate

    I think Bob Andres and some of his students at the University of
    Massachusetts published some slip and fall data within the last five years.

    Larry Abraham, EdD
    Kinesiology & Health Education
    The University of Texas at Austin
    Austin, TX 78712 USA
    (512)471-1273 FAX (512)471-8914

    Dear John ...
    You should start by looking at the ASTM Symposiums on Slip and Fall Research
    - I'm sure you will find some interesting research in the proceedings. You
    may also look for some work done by Jim McElhaney of Duke University - he ran
    several experiments where he purposely tried to induce trip incidences. I'm
    sure he must make some comments regarding reflex response.

    Terry Smith
    USC Head Protection Research Lab
    Dear John,

    We have just got a paper published in Experimental Brain Research. The
    reference is Eng, JJ, Winter, DA and Patla, AE. Strategies for recovery
    from a trip in early and late swing during human walking. Experimental
    Brain Research, 102, 339-349, 1994. It deals mainly with the EMG and
    kinematics from a motor control perspective. For my doctoral dissertation
    I actually performed a three-dimensional kinematic, kinetic, and total body
    centre of mass analysis of tripping. I'm in the midst of trying to
    get the kinetics published. Hope you find the reference useful.

    Janice Eng, PhD, PT
    Post-doctoral Fellow
    School of Kinesiology
    Simon Fraser University
    Burnaby, BC
    Janice Eng Phone (604) 291-5770
    Simon Fraser University FAX (604) 291-3040
    Burnaby, B.C. E-mail
    CANADA V5A 1S6

    Dear John

    Following are the two references about falls and stepping over obstacles.
    Hope these will help.

    Chen, H.C. et al. (1991) Stepping over obstacles: Gait patterns of healthy
    young and old adults, 46(9), 196-203.

    Grabiner, M.D. et al.(1993) Kinematics of recovery from a stumble. Journal of
    Gerontology, 48(3), 97-102.


    Rezaul Begg, PhD
    Biomechanics Unit
    Victoria University of Technology
    Melbourne, Australia