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  • Replies concerning Force Sensing Resistors (FSRs)

    Dear Biomch-l community,

    Here are the replies from my inquiry last week concerning force sensing
    resistors. There were 11 replies. Thanks to all all replied. This was
    very helpful.

    The following was the original posting:

    I am looking for some information regarding force sensing resistors (fsr's).
    I would like to incorporate this material in some hand research we are
    performing. Does anyone have specifics regarding the accuracy, resolution,
    etc. of this material. In addition, what companies distrubute this material,
    and what is the cost? Names and numbers of these companies would be
    appreciated.

    ************************************************** ************************
    ************************************************** ************************
    #1
    Force Sensing Resistors (FSR) are manufactured by INTERLINK ELECTRONICS.
    Unfortunately a student has borrowed my litterature on the FSR technology, so
    all I can give you at this moment is the address etc. of their european branch:

    INTERLINK ELECTRONICS EUROPE
    B.P. 8
    Zone Industrielle
    L-6401 Echternach
    G.D. de Luxembourg

    Phone (352) 72 011/72 132
    FAX (352) 728 262

    They do have a US address as well.

    Regarding accuracy: Not good - Interlink does *not* market the FSRs as force
    sensors, rather as force indicators. However, this technology is used for
    measuring forces where no other sensors (with a reasonable cost) are
    applicable, for instance inside prosthetic sockets. Someone quite recently
    posted a question regarding such a system - maybe the LISTSERV search
    facilities can help you track down his/her address.

    Anyways, the FSRs display a gigantic nonlinearity, hystheresis and so forth.
    The resolution is essentially infinite.


    Hope this can help you.

    Regards,
    Oyvind

    --
    Oyvind Stavdahl (Siv.ing., Dr.ing. student)

    THE NORWEGIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
    Dept. of Engineering Cybernetics Direct line: +47 73 59 43 77
    O. Bragstads plass 8 Switchboard: +47 73 59 43 76
    N-7034 TRONDHEIM Fax: +47 73 59 43 99
    NORWAY Email: stavdahl@itk.unit.no
    http://www.itk.unit.no/ansatte/Stavdahl,Oyvind
    ************************************************** ***********************
    ************************************************** ***********************
    #2

    From: sankakir@egr.msu.edu

    We, at the Biomechanics Evaluation Lab, Michigan State University, are
    working on a project that measures the forces different fingers can
    exert during grasp with varying wrist rotations. We are currently using
    an AMTI hand held force dynamometer (SRMC3A-6-250). We are also working on
    using RSG's (Resistance Strain Gauges) to build our own special purpose
    "Force Transducers". The RSG's are from Measurement Group Inc. and not
    at all expensive. Another company that supplies RSG's is the Omega
    technologies company. The price varies depending on the kind and make of
    the strain gauges (both dimension and number).

    The number for Measurement Group is :
    (919) 365 3800 (Tel.) & (919) 365-3945 (Fax)
    The number for Omega Technology Inc. :
    1-800-622-2378 (1-800 622-best)

    I am sure that these companies will offer other probable methods, including
    fabricated force transducers.

    The number for AMTI is (617) 964-2042 (Tel.) & (617) 964-6234 (Fax)

    Hope this helps,

    Kiran.

    ************************************************** **************************
    Kiran Chandra Sanka
    Research Assistant
    Bio-Mechanics Evaluation Lab
    Michigan State University
    ************************************************** ***************************
    Human Being....... it is all about being human.
    ************************************************** ***************************
    ************************************************** ***************************
    #3

    From: "Torzilli, Peter A. Ph.D."

    Contact Makoto Shimojo, Ph.D., who is using a rubber conductive film for
    finger contact. It is exactly what you are doing. I saw his work while in
    Japan in Feb.

    You can write him at:

    National Institute of Bioscience and Human-Technology
    1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305, Japan
    email: i7601@nibh.go.jp

    Good luck with your project.

    Best regards,
    Peter A. Torzilli, Ph.D.
    Laboratory for Soft Tissue Research
    Hospital for Special Surgery
    NYC
    torzillip@hss.edu
    ************************************************** *************************
    ************************************************** *************************
    #4

    From: "McDonald, Vernon"
    You should try Interlink Electronics, they market an extensive series of
    FSR's. Last address I had for them was:

    Interlink Electronics
    1110 Mark Ave
    Carpinteria, CA 93013
    ph: 805.684.2100
    fax: 805.684.8282

    Good Luck,

    Vernon

    PS I would be interested in hearing of other companies that produce similar
    materials
    ************************************************** *************************
    ************************************************** *************************
    #5

    From: ordwayn@VAX.CS.HSCSYR.EDU (Nat Ordway)

    We did some experiments a few years back on these transducers. One thing we
    found was that the pressure distribution over each transducer shound be
    fairly uniform or else you will get varying results. Of course it depends
    on the size of the transducer you use, but for many applications in the
    biomechanics field the pressure distribution can be nonuniform. Feel free
    to email me back if you would like to discuss this further.


    Nat Ordway
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery
    SUNY Health Science Center (315) 464-6462 -->voice
    750 E. Adams St (315) 464-6470 -->fax
    Syracuse, New York 13210 ordwayn@vax.cs.hscsyr.edu -->email
    ************************************************** **************************
    ************************************************** **************************
    #6

    I recently posted a request for a recent address for Interlink Electronics,
    manufactureres of FSRs. I received about 30 responses but only three
    addresses:

    Interlink Electronics
    546 Flynn Road
    Camarillo, California, USA 93012
    805-484-8855
    805-484-8989 (FAX)
    or
    1110 Mark Ave
    Carpinteria, California, USA 93013-291B
    805-684-2100
    805-684-8282 (FAX)

    There are rumours that Kulite semiconductors is also manufacturing a produce
    but I don't know anything about it.

    KULITE SEMICONDUCTOR PRODUCTS, INC
    One Willow Tree Road
    Leonida, New Jersey 07605
    tel : 201 461-0900
    cable : Kultung
    telex : 685 3296
    fax : 201 461-0990


    Interlink will send you a trial kit containing hundreds of FSRs for you to
    try out. Cost is about US$50. The kit contains spec sheets and circut design
    information.

    Cheers,
    Tim Bach.

    +-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | Timothy M. Bach, PhD |
    | Senior Lecturer in Biomechanics |
    | Deputy Head, School of Human Biosciences |
    | Faculty of Health Sciences, La Trobe University |
    | |
    | Street Address: 607 Swanston Street, Carlton, VIC, Australia |
    | Postal Address: Locked Bag 12, Carlton South, 3053, Australia |
    | Phone: +61 3 285-5311 |
    | FAX: +61 3 285-5184 |
    +-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
    ************************************************** **********************
    ************************************************** **********************
    #7

    Here is the current address of the only company I know of that makes FSRs.

    Interlink Electronics
    546 Flynn Road
    Camarillo, CA 93012

    phone:805-484-1331
    fax:805-484-8989

    hope this helps

    fabian


    ************************************************** ****************************
    Fabian E. Pollo, Ph.D.
    Assistant Professor
    Director, Gait Laboratory
    Baylor College of Medicine
    Division of Restorative Neurology
    and Human Neurobiology
    Smith Tower, Suite 1901
    6550 Fannin St.
    Houston, Texas 77030
    Phone: (713) 798-5536
    Fax : (713) 798-5489
    e-mail: fpollo@bcm.tmc.edu
    ************************************************** ****************************
    ************************************************** ****************************
    #8

    I have considered using FSR's for a miniature "force platform" for finger
    grip measurements. However, the FSRs from Interlink appear to have a
    time-sensitive variation ie when a constant load is applied, the resistance
    drops immediately to a certain value but takes some 30 Seconds - 1 minute
    to stabilise at a final value. Has anyone else noticed this? Could it be
    something to do with air movement from the internal space of the FSR?

    John Yelland

    .................................................. .................
    Technical Services Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, Carlton Campus,
    Latrobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Tel. (03)285 5332 | Fax. (03) 285 5111 | Locked Bag 12
    John Yelland : j.yelland@latrobe.edu.au | Carlton South P.O.
    John Horan : j.horan@latrobe.edu.au | Victoria 3053
    .................................................. ..................
    ************************************************** ************************
    ************************************************** ************************
    #9

    From: "McDonald, Vernon"

    A couple of years ago I also tried using the Interlink FSR's to monitor the
    force applied by the finger tip during grasping activities. We also noticed
    the significant time-sensitive variation with a constant load. We were never
    able to resolve this satisfactorily, but thought perhaps it was a result of
    the material deformation in the FSR's which did not reach equilibrium for 30+
    seconds.

    You may also find the following of some interest:

    Jensen, T. R., Radwin, R. G., & J.G., W. (1991). A conductive polymer sensor
    for measuring external finger forces. Journal of Biomechanics, 24, 851-858.

    Radwin, R. G., Oh, S., Jensen, T. R., & Webster, J. G. (1992). External
    finger forces in submaximal five-finger static pinch prehension. Ergonomics,
    35, 275-288.


    Regards,

    Vernon McDonald
    Motor Performance Lab
    NASA/JSC
    ************************************************** *****************************
    ************************************************** *****************************
    #10

    I have considered using FSR's for a miniature "force platform" for finger
    grip measurements. However, the FSRs from Interlink appear to have a
    time-sensitive variation ie when a constant load is applied, the resistance
    drops immediately to a certain value but takes some 30 Seconds - 1 minute
    to stabilise at a final value. Has anyone else noticed this? Could it be
    something to do with air movement from the internal space of the FSR?

    John Yelland

    .................................................. .................
    Technical Services Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, Carlton Campus,
    Latrobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Tel. (03)285 5332 | Fax. (03) 285 5111 | Locked Bag 12
    John Yelland : j.yelland@latrobe.edu.au | Carlton South P.O.
    John Horan : j.horan@latrobe.edu.au | Victoria 3053
    .................................................. ..................

    ************************************************** *********************
    ************************************************** *********************
    #11

    THere are a few directions to pursue, and sorry I do not have the phone
    numbers...
    Interlink Electronics, Zarpinteria, CA
    Tess Group Corporation, New Jersy
    Constantine Trantsas sp? used to work at Interlink
    and developed this very good consulting company
    called Tess Group
    TechScan, Boston, MA

    Good Luck.

    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~
    Kimberly A. Dwyer, M.S. Clinical Mechanics Group
    Dwyer@ME.QueensU.Ca Mechanical Engineering
    Queen's University, Kingston, Canada
    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~
    ******* END OF REPLIES *********
    ************************************************** ********************
    ************************************************** ********************

    ************* Raymond McKenna, P.T.
    ** Physical Therapist/Research Associate
    ** ** ** ** Texas Woman's University
    ** ** ** ** School of Physical Therapy
    ** ** ** ** ** 1130 M.D. Anderson Blvd.
    ********** ** ** Houston, Texas 77030
    ** ** (713) 794-2075
    ******** e-mail: HG_MCKENNA@TWU.EDU
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