I thank you very much everyone for your replies and I hope
you apologize me for delay of my answer.
My question was about the role of viscoelastic and viscoplastic
behaviour of bone on modelling and remodelling.
It may be useful I to report in the follwing some reference you sent me
for everyone is interested in.
Further news will be wellcome
thank you again!!!
Pasquale VENA
Politecnico di Milano (Italy)

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96. Rimnac, C.M., Petko, A.A., Santner, T.J. and Wright, T.M. The effect of
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97. Lakes, R.S., Katz, L.J. and Sternstein, S.S. Viscoelastic properties of
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98. Lakes, R.D. and Katz, J.L. Viscoelastic properties of wet cortical
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99. Lakes, R.S. and Katz, J.L. Viscoelastic properties of wet cortical
bone-III. A non-linear constitutive equation. J Biomechanics, 12:689-98,

100. Gottesman, T. and Hashin, Z. Analysis of viscoelastic behaviour of bones
on the basis of microstructure. J Biomechanics, 13:89-96, 1980.

101. Pugh, J.W., Rose, R.M. and Radin, E.L. Elastic and viscoelastic
properties of trabecular bone: dependence of structure. J Biomechanics,
6:475-85, 1973.

102. Zilch, H., Rohlmann, A., Bergmann, G. and Kolbel, R. Material properties
of femoral cancellous bone in axial loading. Part II: Time dependent
properties. Arch Orthop Traumat Surg, 97:257-62, 1980.

103. Schoenfeld, C.M., Lautenschlager, E.P. and Meyer, P.R. Mechanical
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104. Bezerianos, A.G. and Nikiforidis, G.C. Determination of the strain
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90. Nikiforidis, G., Bezerianos, A. and Lambiris, E. Adaptation of the
viscoelastic behavior of bone cement to bone as a stabilizing factor in
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"Microdamage in response to repetative torsional loading in the Rat Tibia"
Forwood, M.R and Parker A.W. Calcified Tissue International. 1989 : vol
45 pp 47-53.

"The ultimate properties of bone tissue: the effects of yielding".
Burstein, A.H., Currey, J.D., Frankel, V.H. and Reilly, D.T. Journal of
Biomechanics 1972: vol 5 pp35-44.

"Compact bone fatigue damage-1 Residual strength and stiffness". Carter,
D.R. and Hayes, W.C. Journal of Biomechanics 1977: vol 10 pp 325-377.

(more recent ones now)
"An examination of the micromechanics of failure of bone and antler by
acoustic emission tests and Laser Scanning Confocal microscopy". Zioupos,
P., Currey, J.D. and Sedman, A.J. Med. Eng. Phys., 1994, vol 16 pp 203-212.

"The extent of microcracks and the morphology of microcracks in damaged bone"
Ziopous, P. and Currey, J.D. Journal of materials science 1994: vol 29
pp 978-986.

Currey, J.D.: Strain rate dependence of the mechanical
properties of reindeer antler and the cumulative damage
model of bone fructure. J. Biomechanics 22 (1989), 469-475.

Peterson, R.H., S.L.-Y. Woo: A new methodology to determine
the mechanical properties of ligaments at high strain
rates. J. of Biomechanical Engineering 108 (1986), 365-367.