Dear all,

I am looking for references on mathematical models to represent the inter
vertebral disc and vertebral bodies in the human spine. I have some papers
which liken the discs to 3 parameter viscoelastic elements under axial loads.
I would like to know how if this is also true when shear and bending moments
are applied. Can anyone direct me to any papers written on this subject?

Also are there any other methods of mechanically representing discs?

Thank you in advance.