Here are the answers of the questions I posted some time ago:
I am working in my dissertation proposal and I need to gather information about
flexible goniometers that could be used in the legs of human infants. Ideally I
would like to find small and adaptable (flexible) goniometers whose output could be
interphased with a computer.

Also, I would like to contact anyone who has experiance working with infants' EMG.
I am in the process of reducing some data but I have several concerns that I would
like to comment with other researchers. For instance, what percent cut-off do they
use as the thershold to determine tonic vs phasic muscle activity?

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>From Wed Aug 30 10:28:51 1995

As far as tonic vs phasic definitions go, it really depends upon the
movement task you are looking at. EMG activity that lasts "a long time"
relative to the time scale of the movement is tonic. EMG that comes and
goes on a time scale as short or shorter than the movement is phasic but
there are not mathematical rules. You should try to define your own
criteria that make physiological sense.

| Gerry Gottlieb (617) 353-8984 |
| NeuroMuscular Research Center 353-9757 |
| Boston University fax 353-5737 |
| 44 Cummington St. |
| Boston MA 02215 /\ |
|_______________________/\ / \ /\_______|
| \/ \/
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>From Thu Aug 31 11:07:31 1995


I would be interestsed in following your discussions on management of EMG
wave forms in infants (tonic vs phasic discrimination). I am studing the EMG
output of chick embryos (synchronized with kinematics) and will be looking
at a number of related issues in the near future as we begin analyses.

Please keep me informed.

Nina Bradley Ph.D., P.T.
Biokinesiology & Physical Therapy
Univ. So. Calif.


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>From Wed Aug 30 10:01:08 1995
Subject: it may be useful to look for studies on finger motion

Penny and Giles has developed flexible sensors and a student here
has developed a fiber optic based sensor as well. These studies deal with finger
motion during typing.
I imagine you are working with Thelen.
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>From Wed Aug 30 10:31:43 1995

Dear Rosa,
Please find the e-mail address of Prof. Carolyn Sommerich at NCSU
who used this sensor in her dissertations. She will be able
to give you a better appreciation than I can.

Please keep us informed about your progress.
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>From Wed Aug 30 12:24:28 1995

Try Penny & Giles 1-D or 2-D goniometers in UK. Tel: 495-228000, FAX

Andris Freivalds, Ph.D.
Professor and Director, Center for Cumulative Trauma Disorders
Dept. of Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering
207 Hammond Bldg.
University Park, PA 16802
Tel: 814-863-2361
Web Page:
FAX: 814-863-4745
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>From Wed Aug 30 13:17:41 1995

Dear ms. Angulo-Kinzler:

I had occasion to work on an above-knee prosthesis last year.
part of my work involved obtaining knee angle information from the
prosthetic leg. We looked around for suitable electronic goniometers
but they were far too expensive for our modest budget. So I went ahead
and constructed a simple electronic goniometer using a mechanical
'scale' goniometer and a linear rotary potentiometer, along with a
battery. The angular movement of the knee was converted to a rotation of
the pot, whch gave a linear electrical output. The output was then given
to the A/D interface of our computer.


Sumeet Hingorani
PhD. student in Biomedical Engineering
University of Texas at Austin
email :

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>From Thu Aug 31 03:09:04 1995
Subject: Re: flexible goniometers

Try Penny & Giles Biometrics Ltd, Blackwood, Gwent, NP2 2YD, UK. Phone +44
01495 228000.
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>From Thu Aug 31 05:56:35 1995

Dear Rosa:

You might contact Dr Ian Thomas at Penny & Giles Biometrics Ltd. U.K.
(email I have used one of their goniometers
which might suit your needs. Interfacing to a computer with an ADC is not
a problem.
Hope this helps,

Mike Harwood Voice: 01234 351966
De Montfort University Bedford Fax.: 01234 350833
United Kingdom email:

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>From Thu Aug 31 03:24:36 1995

Dear Rosa

Saw your message on the Net. We are suppliers of flexible goniometers which are
used on all forms of gait analysis and human measurement. Our portable systems
are supplied with software which will enable anaylsis of readouts etc. If you
let me have your full postal address I will be pleased to send you details by

Mary Wilding, Penny & Giles Biometrics, U.K.
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>From Thu Aug 31 09:07:48 1995

Dear Rosa:
For a flexible goniometer try Penny& Giles, Inc.. Their address is
2716 Ocean Park Blvd., Suite #1005, Santa Monica, CA 90405. Telephone:
(310) 393-0014; FAX: (310) 450-9860. Good luck!

Braden Fleming

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>From Thu Aug 31 10:39:55 1995

Dear Rosa,
I used Penny and Giles finger goniometers on the MCP and PIP joints on
humans performing typing tasks. I also used some goniometers that were
developed by Rich Marklin at Marquette U. for measuring wrist motion.
For both sets I collected the data with a Data Translations a-d board
(32 channels, 12 bits) at 600 Hz. I used a software package called
Global Lab for the collection. I really liked it because I could
control each channel individually. Global Lab is sold by Data
Translations. They are located in Marlboro MA. Penny and Giles makes a
wrist monitor, but there is a lot of cross-talk between planes of
motion. Their finger goniometers are very fragile. I ran through quite
a few when collecting my data, and we were very careful with them. They
do have an amp system that you can tap off a signal from and collect
with an a-d board, but we made our own.
Did Mohamad mention Eric Nelson's fiber optic goniometers. That may be
something to look into.
Hope this is helpful. Good luck with your work. Please contact me if
you have any other questions which you think I may be able to help you

Carolyn Sommerich

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Carolyn M. Sommerich, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor Phone: 919-515-8614
Department of Industrial Engineering FAX: 919-515-5281
Box 7906 email:
Raleigh, NC 27695
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