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Answers to EMG and Goniometer questions

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  • Answers to EMG and Goniometer questions

    Here are the answers of the questions I posted some time ago:
    I am working in my dissertation proposal and I need to gather information about
    flexible goniometers that could be used in the legs of human infants. Ideally I
    would like to find small and adaptable (flexible) goniometers whose output could be
    interphased with a computer.

    Also, I would like to contact anyone who has experiance working with infants' EMG.
    I am in the process of reducing some data but I have several concerns that I would
    like to comment with other researchers. For instance, what percent cut-off do they
    use as the thershold to determine tonic vs phasic muscle activity?

    ANSWERS TO EMG question
    ************************************************** *********************
    >From Wed Aug 30 10:28:51 1995

    As far as tonic vs phasic definitions go, it really depends upon the
    movement task you are looking at. EMG activity that lasts "a long time"
    relative to the time scale of the movement is tonic. EMG that comes and
    goes on a time scale as short or shorter than the movement is phasic but
    there are not mathematical rules. You should try to define your own
    criteria that make physiological sense.

    | Gerry Gottlieb (617) 353-8984 |
    | NeuroMuscular Research Center 353-9757 |
    | Boston University fax 353-5737 |
    | 44 Cummington St. |
    | Boston MA 02215 /\ |
    |_______________________/\ / \ /\_______|
    | \/ \/
    ************************************************** *********************
    >From Thu Aug 31 11:07:31 1995


    I would be interestsed in following your discussions on management of EMG
    wave forms in infants (tonic vs phasic discrimination). I am studing the EMG
    output of chick embryos (synchronized with kinematics) and will be looking
    at a number of related issues in the near future as we begin analyses.

    Please keep me informed.

    Nina Bradley Ph.D., P.T.
    Biokinesiology & Physical Therapy
    Univ. So. Calif.


    ************************************************** *********************

    ************************************************** *********************
    >From Wed Aug 30 10:01:08 1995
    Subject: it may be useful to look for studies on finger motion

    Penny and Giles has developed flexible sensors and a student here
    has developed a fiber optic based sensor as well. These studies deal with finger
    motion during typing.
    I imagine you are working with Thelen.
    ************************************************** *********************
    >From Wed Aug 30 10:31:43 1995

    Dear Rosa,
    Please find the e-mail address of Prof. Carolyn Sommerich at NCSU
    who used this sensor in her dissertations. She will be able
    to give you a better appreciation than I can.

    Please keep us informed about your progress.
    ************************************************** *********************
    >From Wed Aug 30 12:24:28 1995

    Try Penny & Giles 1-D or 2-D goniometers in UK. Tel: 495-228000, FAX

    Andris Freivalds, Ph.D.
    Professor and Director, Center for Cumulative Trauma Disorders
    Dept. of Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering
    207 Hammond Bldg.
    University Park, PA 16802
    Tel: 814-863-2361
    Web Page:
    FAX: 814-863-4745
    ************************************************** *********************
    >From Wed Aug 30 13:17:41 1995

    Dear ms. Angulo-Kinzler:

    I had occasion to work on an above-knee prosthesis last year.
    part of my work involved obtaining knee angle information from the
    prosthetic leg. We looked around for suitable electronic goniometers
    but they were far too expensive for our modest budget. So I went ahead
    and constructed a simple electronic goniometer using a mechanical
    'scale' goniometer and a linear rotary potentiometer, along with a
    battery. The angular movement of the knee was converted to a rotation of
    the pot, whch gave a linear electrical output. The output was then given
    to the A/D interface of our computer.


    Sumeet Hingorani
    PhD. student in Biomedical Engineering
    University of Texas at Austin
    email :

    ************************************************** *********************
    >From Thu Aug 31 03:09:04 1995
    Subject: Re: flexible goniometers

    Try Penny & Giles Biometrics Ltd, Blackwood, Gwent, NP2 2YD, UK. Phone +44
    01495 228000.
    ************************************************** *********************
    >From Thu Aug 31 05:56:35 1995

    Dear Rosa:

    You might contact Dr Ian Thomas at Penny & Giles Biometrics Ltd. U.K.
    (email I have used one of their goniometers
    which might suit your needs. Interfacing to a computer with an ADC is not
    a problem.
    Hope this helps,

    Mike Harwood Voice: 01234 351966
    De Montfort University Bedford Fax.: 01234 350833
    United Kingdom email:

    ************************************************** ***********************
    >From Thu Aug 31 03:24:36 1995

    Dear Rosa

    Saw your message on the Net. We are suppliers of flexible goniometers which are
    used on all forms of gait analysis and human measurement. Our portable systems
    are supplied with software which will enable anaylsis of readouts etc. If you
    let me have your full postal address I will be pleased to send you details by

    Mary Wilding, Penny & Giles Biometrics, U.K.
    ************************************************** *******************************
    >From Thu Aug 31 09:07:48 1995

    Dear Rosa:
    For a flexible goniometer try Penny& Giles, Inc.. Their address is
    2716 Ocean Park Blvd., Suite #1005, Santa Monica, CA 90405. Telephone:
    (310) 393-0014; FAX: (310) 450-9860. Good luck!

    Braden Fleming

    ************************************************** *******************************
    >From Thu Aug 31 10:39:55 1995

    Dear Rosa,
    I used Penny and Giles finger goniometers on the MCP and PIP joints on
    humans performing typing tasks. I also used some goniometers that were
    developed by Rich Marklin at Marquette U. for measuring wrist motion.
    For both sets I collected the data with a Data Translations a-d board
    (32 channels, 12 bits) at 600 Hz. I used a software package called
    Global Lab for the collection. I really liked it because I could
    control each channel individually. Global Lab is sold by Data
    Translations. They are located in Marlboro MA. Penny and Giles makes a
    wrist monitor, but there is a lot of cross-talk between planes of
    motion. Their finger goniometers are very fragile. I ran through quite
    a few when collecting my data, and we were very careful with them. They
    do have an amp system that you can tap off a signal from and collect
    with an a-d board, but we made our own.
    Did Mohamad mention Eric Nelson's fiber optic goniometers. That may be
    something to look into.
    Hope this is helpful. Good luck with your work. Please contact me if
    you have any other questions which you think I may be able to help you

    Carolyn Sommerich

    ************************************************** *************************
    Carolyn M. Sommerich, Ph.D.
    Assistant Professor Phone: 919-515-8614
    Department of Industrial Engineering FAX: 919-515-5281
    Box 7906 email:
    Raleigh, NC 27695
    ************************************************** *************************