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  • Plyometrics

    Hello BIOMECH-Lers,

    I have been looking for information on the training adaptions to
    plyometrics. The literature is fairly ambiguous and is a lot of 'coach
    speak' which confuses the picture. I have considered adaptions in the
    following areas: adaptions at the level of the cross bridges which
    enable athletes to utilise the stretch-shortening cycle more
    effectively, adaptions to the tendon, effects of over-load in the
    eccentric phase, adaptions to motor control patterns (e.g. increased
    activation, adaptions which allow athletes to use the
    countermovement more effectively) and the effect of the stretch reflex
    to (1) activate more fibres in the eccentric phase for simple strength
    training effects, (2) be trained to improve the activation of muscles
    when it is elicited.
    I would be grateful for help/ references in the following areas:
    1) what would be the effect on performance of complex movements of
    these adaptions?
    2) I can only find papers where lengthening velocities of 85mm/sec
    have to be used to elicit the stretch reflex. Is there any evidence that
    the stretch reflex is used at velocities comparable to those found in
    plyometric type exercises (and what lengthening velocities are found
    in plyometric exercises)?
    3) Are there any published (or unpublished) kinetic analyses of
    plyometric exercises showing the forces generated in the eccentric
    phase compared to those generated during normal concentric training
    (for the strength training effects), or analyses of different movements
    looking at variations in the charecteristics that may lead to different
    adaptions between different types of exercises?

    Can anyone help?

    Thank you.

    Sam Winter
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham,