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  • responses:cervical spine loading

    Hello fellow biomch-l ers,

    Here is a summary of the responses for my request for cervical
    spine loading, preceeded bye the original message and a few articles I
    found to be helpful. Thanks to all who responded.


    Chen et al., Kinematics of the Cervical Spine Canal: Changes with sagittal
    plane loading.,J.Spinal Disord. Vol 7,#2 (93-101),1994

    Shea et al.,Variations of stiffness and strength along the human cervical
    spine.,J Biomechanics, Vol 24,#2 (95-107),1991

    Cusick et al.,Cervical spine injuries from high velocity forces:a
    pathoanatomic and radiologic study.,J Spinal Disord Vol 9,#1 (1-7)1996

    Crowell et al.,Cervical injuries under flexion and compression loading.,J
    Spinal Disord, Vol 6, #2 (175-181),1993

    Yoganandan et al.,Strength and kinematic response of dynamic cervical
    spine injuries., Spine, vol 16,#10sup. (s511-517),1991

    Shea et al., In vitro hyperextension injuries in the cadaveric cervical
    spine, J of Orthopaedic Research, vol 10 (911-916),1992

    Neumann et al.,The ultimate flexural strength of the lumbar spine and
    vertebral bone mineral content., J of Spinal Disord, vol 6, #4 (314-323)1993

    Neumann et al.,The mechanism of initial flexion-distraction injury in the
    lumbar spine, Spine, vol17 #9 (1083-1089),1992

    Yogonadan et al.,strength and motion analysis of the human head-neck
    complex, J of Spinal Disord, vol 4 #1 (73-85) 1991


    >I am searching for information regarding the impact of repeated
    >loading to the cervical spine via the back of the head. The
    >situation we are investigating is such that forces up to the
    >equivalence of three times the mass of the head*gravity (or up to
    >approx. 180N), are applied to the occipital region of the skull at
    >a loading rate ranging from 100 to 480 N/sec.
    > This obviously causes flexion in the cervical region as the mass
    >of the thorax resists the movement. My search has turned up a
    >number of papers that investigate spinal loading to failure in
    >various flexion and flexion-compression situations. However, I
    >have been unsuccessful in locating papers that deal with the risk
    >factors involved in submaximal repeated
    >loading of the cervical spine (ie.: intervertebral disc
    >degeneration, capsular or ligamentous damage etc...).
    >Any references or information on this subject would be greatly
    >appreciated and a summary of responses will be posted.


    Twomey and Taylor have published some work, of note is a paper
    published in Spine. I think it was in 1993 or 4. Their work was
    more with wiplash/MVA and postmortem findings. I mention it
    some of the same motions are involved and similar structures may in

    fact be involved. Hope it helps. If you can't find the paper
    e-mail me I can find the exact date and I have it some place.

    Bob Streb
    Department of Physical Therapy
    Health Science Center
    State University of New York at Stony Brook

    We have done research on repetitive movements of the cervical spine
    in response to flexion, extension, protrusion, and retraction
    motions. Flexion and protrusion motions have shown correlations to
    the onset of clinical symptoms and extension and retraction have
    lessened these symptoms. I'm not sure from your post if this is any
    interest because this does not deal with "impact loading" per se
    and deals with repetitive movements. But, this may
    provide you with some additional keywords to search under. If you
    have any questions or want some references, feel free to contact

    Nat Ordway
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery
    SUNY Health Science Center at Syracuse

    Dear Daniel,
    I remember an article about this subject in Ergonomics or Applied
    Ergonomics in the last 12 months.
    If you don't have access to this journal please let me know so I
    can find
    the complete reference,
    With kinds regards
    Johan Molenbroek
    | Johan Molenbroek, PhD |
    | Associate Professor Engineering Anthropometry |
    | Acting Chair Subdepartment Physical Ergonomics |
    | Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering |
    | Delft University of Technology |


    You pose an interesting question. Unfortunately, I am not aware of
    any studies in which horizontal plane cyclic loads have been

    Single cycle loading has been performed by a number of authors
    including all the older sled work, and the current low delta
    V work whiplash investigations.

    If these references are of interest to you let me know. Also,
    would you be kind enough to send me the results of your query?
    I am curious to see what has been done in this area.

    With regards,

    Barry Myers M.D., Ph.D.

    Assistant Professor
    Duke University
    Department of Biomedical Engineering
    Division of Orthopaedic Surgery