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  • Static posture responses

    As promised, I am posting a summary of responses to my request for
    static posture normalative data.

    The responses are after my signature. Thanks to all those who took the
    time to respond.

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    Stephen W. Vaitl, D.C.
    Certified Chiropractic Sports Physician
    Director of Rehabilitation
    Assistant Professor, Department of Principles and Practice
    Cleveland Chiropractic College - Kansas City

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    Here's my original posting;

    I'm looking for any articles, preferably published, that establish a
    normaltive database for static posture in humans. Most of the
    I've obtained so far is either dynamic postural measures (more recent
    articles) or very old publications (circa 1909-1945) that only address
    issue from a generalized aspect.

    Any help would be greatly appreciated!


    Here are the responses I got;

    Date: Wed, 7 Aug 1996 13:07:43 -0300

    Dear Steve,

    Take a look im my homepage
    (, there you may find
    to you.


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    Date: 07 Aug 1996 11:38:42 -0500 (EST)


    A colleague of mine forwarded me your BIOMCH-L posting. =20
    My research group has published a series of recent papers dealing with
    posture. If you send me your regular mailing address, I would be happy
    to send
    you copies of these papers. All the best.
    Jim Collins
    Research Associate Professor
    NeuroMuscular Research Center
    Boston University

    (Jim has sent me about six or seven articles)

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    Date: Wed, 7 Aug 1996 11:51:24 -0500 (CDT)
    From: Michael J Dancisak

    Your request for more information on unconstrained static posture may
    produce much more than what you already have. I am currently completing
    dissertation on human stance. We have already collected observational
    and have found some interesting results. The next step is to collect
    pressure data during stance in several non-pathological populations at=20
    different stages of human development.

    IF you are looking for some current information you might see several=20
    articles by Woollacott, Nashner, or Shumway-Cook. You can check Winter
    Patla as well. Good luck!

    Mic Dancisak Office: (612) 625-9387
    University of Minnesota Fax: (612) 626-7700
    Division of Kinesiology e-mail:
    20 Cooke Hall
    1900 University Ave. S.E.
    Minneapolis, MN 55455

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    Date: Wed, 7 Aug 1996 16:30:14 -0400 (EDT)
    From: Edward Francis Owens


    Did you catch:

    "A radiographic comparison of neutral cervical posture with cervical=20
    flexion and extension ranges of motion" by J.S. Miller, N.L. Polossar
    M. Haas, (JMPT vol 19, #5. pp296-301, June 1996)

    Only 16 subjects, but they presented stats on intersegmental angles at=20
    neutral position, as well as a fairly good bibliography.

    One article they missed might also be of interest, again cervical=20
    spine only:

    Owens EF, Hoiriis KT. Cervical curvature assessment using a digitized=20
    radiographic analysis. CRJ 1(4):47-62, 1990.

    In that study we have distribution plots of several curvature factors on=20
    about 100 subjects, taken from neutral lateral x-rays.

    Hope these help,

    Ed Owens
    Life College

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    Date: Wed, 7 Aug 1996 23:44:28 +0200 (METDST)
    From: Claus Willemer

    Dear Stephen,=20
    May be, I can help you, but I will come home in about one week. So, if
    are able to wait a little bit, please reply.
    The only thing I can say now: following the information I got, there is=20
    no standard way to measure posture and the connection between posture,=20
    function and pain is not well described- may be, because there is no
    method, may be, there is no certain relation.
    These are two very good reasons, posture is sill a kind of mystery.
    may be, I am wrong, but certainly something to consider.
    Ways to measure posture: Xray, photographic and videographic methods,=20
    direct measure of the surface,...
    Sincerely yours,
    Claus Willemer

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    Date: Wed, 7 Aug 1996 14:51:36 -0700
    From: (Dr. Gary Erkfritz )

    Dear Dr. Steve,

    Might I suggest you look up any articles by Lowell E. Ward, D.C. To my=20
    knowledge, he's the only one that has published information on the=20
    entire spinal column-pelvic-meningeal unit measurement. I know that=20
    you can call his office in Long Beach, CA, and he will send you=20
    articles that have been published.

    Dr. Gary Erkfritz
    Newbury Park, CA

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    Date: Thu, 08 Aug 1996 07:58:17 +1000
    From: Robert Newton


    I published the following paper in 1994. Please let me know if would
    like a

    Newton, R.U., and R.J. Neal. Three Dimensional Quantification of Human
    Posture. Gait and Posture. 2: 205-212. 1994.=20

    Robert Newton

    Robert Newton
    Lecturer, Centre for Exercise Science and Sport Management
    Southern Cross University
    PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW 2480, AUSTRALIA
    Telephone: Int + 61 66 203 234 Facsimile: Int + 61 66 203 880

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    Date: Wed, 7 Aug 1996 16:39:55 -0600 (MDT)
    From: (Jaime Cobb)

    I'm not sure if this will help, but... You may wish to point your
    to the Visible Human Project, sorry I don't have the URL it's been over
    year since I've looked at that site. They, or the people working on the
    project may be able to help. You see they are putting together MRI
    of a normal man and normal woman. I think they must have determined
    criteria for normal, and that might get you to the info you are looking

    Good Luck

    Jaime Cobb, D.C., D.O.M.

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    Date: Thu, 8 Aug 96 8:33:29 PDT
    From: (Pro Stergiou)


    Here is one published article that might give you a starting point:

    Winter, D.A., Prince, F., Stergiou, P., Powell, C. Medial-lateral and=20
    anterior-posterior motor responses associated with centre of pressure=20
    changes in quiet standing. Neuroscience Research Communications 12(3),=20
    141-148, 1993.



    Pro Stergiou
    c/o NIKE (Sports Research Laboratory)
    One Bowerman Drive
    Beaverton, OR
    97006-6453, U.S.A.

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    Date: Thu, 8 Aug 1996 17:04:10 +0100
    From: Andrew Pinder

    Look at=20

    D'Angelo M.D., Grieve D.W., Pereira L.F. and Watkinson T. (1987), "A
    description of normal relaxed standing postures", CLinical Biomechanics,
    2(3), 140-144.

    Andrew Pinder
    Ergonomics and Work Psychology Section
    Health and Safety Laboratory
    Broad Lane
    Sheffield S3 7HQ

    Phone: + 44 114 289 2594
    Fax: + 44 114 289 2526

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    Date: Sat, 10 Aug 1996 11:56:58 +0000
    From: ortho pitie

    Dear colleague,
    I'm working to static and dynamic "normal" posture, this is a part of=20
    my biobliography:

    The radiological study of the normal spine.=20
    Radiol Clin North Am 1977;15:133-154.

    2. DELMAS A., A. P.
    D=E9termination des axes fonctionnels des vert=E9bres lombaires.=20
    Semaine des H=F4pitaux. Arch. Anat. 1957;1(Janv):58-63.

    The mechanical and kinematic analysis of the lumbar spine in=20
    normal livilg human subjects in vivo.=20
    J. Biomech. 1979;12:165-172.

    4. GONON G.P.=20
    Etude biom=E9canique de la colonne dorso-lombaire de D10 =E0 S1.=20
    Lyon, 1975.

    5. PANJABI M., CHANG D., J. D.
    An analysis of errors in kinematic parameters associated with in=20
    vivo functional radiographs.=20
    Spine 1992;17(2):200-205.

    Errors in kinematic parameters of a planar joint: guidelines for=20
    optimal experimental design.=20
    J. Biomech 1982;15:537-544.

    7. STAGNARA P., DE MAUROY JC., DRAN G., et Coll.
    Reciprocal angulation of vertebral bodies in a sagittal plane:=20
    approach to references for the evaluation of kyphosis and lordosis.=20
    Spine 1982;7(4):335-342.

    Clinical biomechanics of the spine.=20
    JB Lippincott Company, Philadelphia 1978;.

    S. Ramar=E9

    Dr S. Ramar=E9 (M.D)
    University Paris VI
    Orthopaedic service, Pitie Hospital, Paris, France

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    Date: Mon, 12 Aug 1996 09:56:14 -0700
    From: Gunter Siegmund
    Organization: MacInnis Engineering


    Normative balance data exists, however because everyone appears to have=20
    different favorite measure of balance, its often difficult to find=20
    normative data for the types of tests you are considering. Articles we=20
    have found useful for our experiments are:

    Goldie, P.A., Evans, O.M., and Bach, T.M., Steadiness in one-legged=20
    stance: development of a reliable force platform testing procedure,
    Arch Phys Med Rehabil, Vol 73, April 1992.

    Goldie, P.A., Bach, T.M., and Evans, O.M., Force platform measures for=20
    evaluating postural control: reliability and validity, Arch Phys Med=20
    Rehabil, Vol 70, July 1989.

    Burl, M.M., Williams, J.G., and Nayak, U.S.L., Effect of cervical=20
    collars on standing balance, Arch Phys Med Rehabil, Vol 73, December=20

    Suomi, R. and Koceja, D.M., Postural sway patterns of normal men and=20
    women and men with retardation during two-legged stance test, Arch Phys=20
    Med Rehabil, Vol 75, February 1994.

    Gagey, P.M. and Weber, B., Posturologie. Regulation et dereglements de=20
    la station bebout (in french), Masson, Paris, 1995. (ISBN=20

    As you can see, the Archives of the American Academy of Physical=20
    Medicine and Rehabilitation are a useful data source. Good luck in your=20
    hunt and please post a summary of your responses.


    Gunter Siegmund
    MacInnis Engineering Associates
    Richmond BC Canada