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responses to foot length and ankle ROM

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  • responses to foot length and ankle ROM

    Here are the responses so far:
    Thanks to everyone who supplied information.

    Inman, VT The Joints of the Ankle Williams and Wilkins 1976
    Singh, A., Starkweather, K., Jatana, S., Hollister, A.M., Lupichuk,
    A.G.: The Kinematics of the Ankle: A Hinge Axis Model. Foot and
    Ankle, Vol. 13, No. 8, pp. 439-446, October 1992.

    Anne Hollister, MD
    LSUMC-S / Orthopaedic Surgery
    1501 Kings Hwy.
    Shreveport, LA 71130-3932

    With regards to the average adult male foot length, you should find
    the following reference to be helpful:

    Hawes, M.R. and Sovak, D. (1994). Quantitative morphology of the
    human foot in a North American population. Ergonomics 37(7):

    Marvin Bauman
    Human Biology and Nutritional Sciences
    University of Guelph
    Guelph, Ontario, Canada
    N1G 2W1

    Crandall, J. R.; Portier, L.; Petit, P.; Hall, G. W.; Klopp, G.S.;
    Bass, C. R.; Hurwitz, S.; Trosseille, X.; Tarriere, C., Pilkey, W. D.;
    Lavaste, F.; Lassau, M.; "Biomechanical Response and Physcial
    Properties of the Leg, Foot, and Ankle" Proc. of 39th Stapp Car Crash
    Conference, Paper 962424, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale,
    PA; Nov. 1996 pp 173-192

    Table 1. Dimensions on the human foot and ankle.
    REF Measurement Study Dimension (cm)
    A Foot Length UVA 24.4 +/- 1.5
    B Ball length (heel to head of 5th metatarsal) Diffrient
    16.3 C Heel Width Parham 7.0 +/- 0.44 D Ball length
    (heel to head of 1st metatarsal) Diffrient 19.6 E Foot
    Breadth at metatarsal-phalangeal joints Parham 10.5 +/- 0.56 F
    Medial Malleolus Height from head to floor Medial Malleolus Height
    from tip to floor UVA Renault 8.3 +/- 1.1 8.3 * 1.3 G Lateral
    Malleolus Height from head to floor Lateral Malleolus Height from
    tip to floor Parham Renault 7.2 +/- 0.29 6.9 * 1.2 H Ankle
    width at level of medial malleolus Diffrient 7.6 I
    Soft tissue thickness from posterior heel to calcaneus Renault 0.8 *
    0.4 J Soft tissue thickness from distal heel to calcaneus
    Renault 1.6 * 0.4 K Plantar Arch Height from floor Parham 3.03
    +/- 0.60 L Ankle Length from heel to front of ankle (tibia)
    Parham 10.8 +/- 0.72 M Heel to head of lateral malleolus
    Diffrient 6.6 O Tibial Height from distal heel to tibial
    medial margin UVA 47.0 +/- 4.07

    Regarding the range of motion for the ankle, it is highly dependent on
    the angle of the knee since the Achilles attaches to the gastrocnemius
    muscle which in turn inserts above the knee at the distal femur. With
    the knee extended, we saw about 15 degrees of dorsiflexion. With the
    knee flexed, we observed up to 45 degrees of dorsiflexion. The graphs
    are provided in the paper.

    As far as sagital plane motion - there is no pure sagital motion, the
    axis is oblique and often described as tri-planar. But the motions of
    dorsi and plantar flexion are close.

    American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons: Method of Measuring and
    Recording. AAOS, Chicago, 1965. DF = 0 to 20 degrees PF = o to 50

    Hoppenfeld, S: Physical Examination of the Spine and Extremities.
    Appleton Century-Crofts, NY, 1976 DF = 0 to 20 degrees PF = 0 to 50

    American Medical Association: Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent
    Impairment. AMA, Chicago 1988. DF = 0 to 20 degrees PF = 0 to 40
    There was a paper presented at the 1996 Stapp Car Crash Conference by
    Jeff Crandall from the University of Virginia. The paper was titled
    Biomechanical Response and Physical Properties of the Leg, Foot, and
    Ankle. The proceedings are published by the Society of Automotive
    Engineers and it is paper number SAE 962424. The paper has a table
    with a number of average measurements of the foot. The average foot
    length for 39 male subjects was 24.4 +/- 1.5 cm.

    Concerning the range of motion, I'll quote a few sentences out of the
    proceedings of a lower extremity injury conference that we hosted
    about a year ago.

    - The natural range of motion (ROM) was defined as the angle at 10 N-m
    (without any Achilles load - isolated cadaver legs). The natural ROM
    was 25 degrees in dorsiflexion, 40 degrees in plantarflexion, 15
    degrees in inversion, and 9 degrees in eversion. The reference for
    this is

    Tarriere C and Viano D. Biomechanical synthesis of new data on human
    lower leg responses and tolerances in parallel with dummies and injury
    criteria. International Conference on Pelvic and Lower Extremity
    Injuries, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.
    Department of Transportation, pp. 153-160, December, 1995.

    I have high confidence in the accuracy of the foot length number. The
    range of motion numbers you might want to check against some other
    numbers. Keep in mind that the numbers given were measured from
    disarticulated cadaver legs.

    - Mike Kleinberger


    Dr. Michael Kleinberger
    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
    Office of Crashworthiness Research
    Biomechanics Research Division


    ry checking The Anthropometric Source Book which is a NASA
    publication around 1978.

    Beth Todd

    Dr. Beth A. Todd
    Assistant Professor
    Mechanical Engineering
    Box 870276
    University of Alabama
    Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0276
    fax: (205)348-6419
    Robert R. Gustavson
    Associate Professor and Head Soccer Coach
    John Brown University
    Siloam Springs, Arkansas 72761
    office phone: 501-524-7321
    office fax: 501-524-7412