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  • Summary of responses to <<>>

    Hello Biomech readers,

    A while ago, I asked two questions regarding optimization approach used
    by Kaufman et.al. I would like to thank the following readers who
    replied to my questions.

    Pilip Fink
    Anne Hollister
    Graham E. Caldwell
    Dimitrios Tsirakos
    Maria Augusta
    Kenton Kaufman (The author of the paper)

    The original query and the summary of the responses are as follows.

    Reza.
    &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&
    & Reza Fazel-Rezai fazel@ee.umanitoba.ca &
    & Biomedical Eng. Lab. fax: (204) 261-4639 &
    & Dept. of Elect. Eng. &
    & University of Manitoba &
    &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&


    ************************************************** ******************
    *************************The original query*************************
    ************************************************** ******************

    > Dear Biomech readers,
    >
    > On the papers published by K.R. Kaufman, K.N. An and E.Y.S. Chao[1],
    > the following equation is used for the limits of the muscle force:
    >
    > 0 < F(i) < ( Alpha*Factive(i)+Fpassive(i) )*PCSA(i)*Sigma ;i=1:M
    >
    > Alpha : Muscle activation
    > Sigma : Muscle stress
    > M : Number of muscles
    >
    > Then, they have used muscle activation (Alpha) as a cost function
    > in optimization method, i.e.,
    >
    > Minimize(Alpha)
    >
    > (Q1)- Is there one Sigma and Alpha for all muscles (i=1:M) ?
    > Or in the equation, they should be written Sigma(i) and Alpha(i).
    > In the second case, what will be the cost function?
    >
    > (Q2)- I would like some information regarding the recent works on the
    > muscle force distribution problem (FDP) using optimization method
    > or any other approach. Is there any paper on FDP of the upper limb?
    >
    > Thanks for your time,
    > Reza.
    >
    > [1]- K.R. Kaufman, K.N. An W.J. Litchy and E.Y. Chao, "Physiological
    > prediction of muscle forces- I. Theoretical formulation", J. of
    > Biomech., Vol. 40, No.3, pp.781-792, 1991.
    >


    ************************************************** **************************
    Date: Thu, 16 Jan 1997 10:45:35 EST5EDT4,M4.1.0,M10.5.0
    From: Philip Fink
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