Thanks to Jacques Van Hoecke, Yasuo Kawakami, Don
Kirkendall, Anne Hollister, Joseph Mizrahi, Cheryl
Riegger-Krugh, Dan Kelaher and John M. Cissik for
the helpful information that they provided on the
above subject.

A summary of the references received is listed bleow.

LEGRENEUR P, MORLON B, VAN HOECKE J. (1996) Simulation of the in situ soleus
muscle isometric force output as a function of neural excitation. J.
Biomech., 29, 1455-1462

Wickiewicz, T. L., Roy, R. R., Powell, P. L., and Edgerton, V. R.
Muscle architecture of the human lower limb.
Clin. Orthopead. Rel. Res. 179: 275-283, 1983.

Sacks, R. D., and Roy, R. R.
Architecture of the hind limb muscles of cats: functional significance.
J. Morphol. 173: 185-195, 1982.

Lieber, R. L., and Blevins, F. T.
Skeletal muscle architecture of the rabbit hindlimb: functional implications of muscle design.
J. Morphol. 199: 93-101, 1989.

Frigo, C., and Pedoddi, A.
Determination of muscle length during locomotion.
In: Biomechanics VI-A, edited by E. Asmussen, and E. Jorgensen.
Baltimore: University Park Press, 1978, pp. 355-360.

See Richard L. Lieber's book "Skeletal muscle structure and function"
published by Williams and Wilkins (1992).Chapter 1, pg36-37 summarizes
Wickiewicz's data (Clin Ortho Rel Res 179:275-283, 1983) on lower limb
muscle architecture. Either place offers pennation angles on leg

Giat, Mizrahi and Levy: A musculo-tendon model of the fatigue profiles
of paralyzed quadriceps muscles under FES. IEEE Trans on Biomed Engng
Giat, Mizrahi and Levy: Fatigue and recoveryin paraplegic's quadriceps
muscle when subjected to intermittent stimulation. ASME J. Biomech.
Engng. 118:357-366, 1996.

Weber and Weber did the initial study of Hamstring and quadraceps
architecture in the early 1800's. Many of the modern references use (or
misuse) their data. Reading the early article is certainly well worth
while and insightful.

The book Clinical Kinesiology by Brunnstrom, FA Davis, has
information about physiological cross sections.

Friederich and Brand, (1990) J Biomechanics 23:91-95
Narici et al (1988, 1989, 1992) Eur J Appl Phys and Occ Phys

Dr Gerard Garbutt
Principal Lecturer
Staffordshire University
School of Sciences
Division of Sport, Health and Exercise

Tel: 01782 294341
Fax: 01782 747167