ISB TUTORIALS on August 24th 1997 in Tokyo

Details of the tutorials are given below. To register tick the lectures
required on the registration form and enclose 2100 yen for each course
(maximum one morning tutorial and one afternoon tutorial) together with
your Congress and banquet fees. For credit card payments a payment slip
should be completed. If you have already registered for the Congress but
have neglected to register for the tutorials, complete the additional payment
slip enclosed with your newsletter (VISA and Master Card accepted) and
enclose your name, address, and email address together with details of
the tutorials for which you wish to register.

Education Officer
International Society of Biomechanics

Eccentric Muscle Contractions - Roger Enoka : 9-00 to 12.00

Over the past several decades, numerous studies have established that eccentric
contractions can maximize the force exerted and the work performed by muscle,
that they are associated with a greater mechanical efficiency, that they can
attenuate the mechanical effects of impact forces, and that they enhance the
tissue damage associated with exercise. Additionally, it now seems that
eccentric contractions are controlled by unique neural commands. This tutorial
will examine the experimental evidence that provides the foundation for our
current understanding of the benefits, consequences, and control of eccentric

Signal Processing in Biomechanics - Brian Davis and Virgil Stokes: 9-00 to 12.00

This tutorial will examine issues central to biomechanical methodologies --
data collection and data analysis. Data collection will include:
analog-to-digital conversion, multiple-channel synchronization, undersampling
and digital filter design. Data analysis will include: detection and treatment
of outliers, data transformations, uncertainty analyses in data checks and
experimental design, and simple statistical tests (e.g. single factor ANOVA).
The emphasis will be on practical solutions and their computer implementations
rather than theory. This should be of interest to those involved in
biomechanics research at all levels.

Low Back Biomechanics - Stuart McGill : 13-00 to 16-00

Low back pain results from tissue damage that occurs when an applied load
exceeds the failure tolerance of the tissue. This tutorial will address three
aspects of this basic tenet of injury: an analysis of the factors which modulate
the tissue load-time history; an analysis of the factors which modulate the
failure tolerance of the tissue; the formulation of injury avoidance strategies
based on biomechanically justifiable principles noted previously. This tutorial
will be of interest to those involved in musculoskeletal injury at all levels.

Muscle Mechanics - Walter Herzog : 13-00 to 16-00

The purpose of the tutorial is to discuss the active mechanical properties of
skeletal muscle and relate these properties to the structure and morphology of
muscle. The discussion will range from molecular consideration of force
production to the mechanisms of control of multiple muscle systems. General
mechanical properties of skeletal muscle will be illustrated with specific
examples. Limitations of our understanding about the detailed aspects of
muscular force production, the corresponding energetics, and movement control
will be addressed. Differences between in-vitro and in-vivo properties of
skeletal muscle will be pointed out and explained.