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    ISB TUTORIALS on August 24th 1997 in Tokyo

    Details of the tutorials are given below. To register tick the lectures
    required on the registration form and enclose 2100 yen for each course
    (maximum one morning tutorial and one afternoon tutorial) together with
    your Congress and banquet fees. For credit card payments a payment slip
    should be completed. If you have already registered for the Congress but
    have neglected to register for the tutorials, complete the additional payment
    slip enclosed with your newsletter (VISA and Master Card accepted) and
    enclose your name, address, and email address together with details of
    the tutorials for which you wish to register.

    Education Officer
    International Society of Biomechanics

    Eccentric Muscle Contractions - Roger Enoka : 9-00 to 12.00

    Over the past several decades, numerous studies have established that eccentric
    contractions can maximize the force exerted and the work performed by muscle,
    that they are associated with a greater mechanical efficiency, that they can
    attenuate the mechanical effects of impact forces, and that they enhance the
    tissue damage associated with exercise. Additionally, it now seems that
    eccentric contractions are controlled by unique neural commands. This tutorial
    will examine the experimental evidence that provides the foundation for our
    current understanding of the benefits, consequences, and control of eccentric

    Signal Processing in Biomechanics - Brian Davis and Virgil Stokes: 9-00 to 12.00

    This tutorial will examine issues central to biomechanical methodologies --
    data collection and data analysis. Data collection will include:
    analog-to-digital conversion, multiple-channel synchronization, undersampling
    and digital filter design. Data analysis will include: detection and treatment
    of outliers, data transformations, uncertainty analyses in data checks and
    experimental design, and simple statistical tests (e.g. single factor ANOVA).
    The emphasis will be on practical solutions and their computer implementations
    rather than theory. This should be of interest to those involved in
    biomechanics research at all levels.

    Low Back Biomechanics - Stuart McGill : 13-00 to 16-00

    Low back pain results from tissue damage that occurs when an applied load
    exceeds the failure tolerance of the tissue. This tutorial will address three
    aspects of this basic tenet of injury: an analysis of the factors which modulate
    the tissue load-time history; an analysis of the factors which modulate the
    failure tolerance of the tissue; the formulation of injury avoidance strategies
    based on biomechanically justifiable principles noted previously. This tutorial
    will be of interest to those involved in musculoskeletal injury at all levels.

    Muscle Mechanics - Walter Herzog : 13-00 to 16-00

    The purpose of the tutorial is to discuss the active mechanical properties of
    skeletal muscle and relate these properties to the structure and morphology of
    muscle. The discussion will range from molecular consideration of force
    production to the mechanisms of control of multiple muscle systems. General
    mechanical properties of skeletal muscle will be illustrated with specific
    examples. Limitations of our understanding about the detailed aspects of
    muscular force production, the corresponding energetics, and movement control
    will be addressed. Differences between in-vitro and in-vivo properties of
    skeletal muscle will be pointed out and explained.