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Laterality responses

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  • Laterality responses

    Thanks to all those who responded concerning my laterality questions. I
    apologize for taking so long to write this. Unfortunately there were not
    too many responses. I still feel this is a reasonable concern, which was
    evident by the discussion at the Gait conference in Chicago whenever a group
    combined left and right side data. I would very much like to speak with
    anyone who has examined this problem more thoroughly. I am still pulling
    articles from the literature.

    A few good articles I have come across are.

    Gunnderson LA et al , Physical Therapy 69(8) 640-650 1989 Aug.
    Ounupuu S. and Winter D., Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurology, 72
    429-438 1989.
    Arsenault BA, Winter D. Marteniuk R, Bilateralism of EMG profiles in Human
    Locomotion, American Journal of Physical Medicine, vol 65, No. 1, 1-16; 1986

    As for our data our preliminary examination has shown differences between
    right and left sides (kinetics and kinematics). We do however have a long
    way to go in the analysis and can not at this time make any conclusions as
    to where these differences come from (either experimental or physiological)

    Thanks again to everyone

    ************************************************** ***************
    Carl Gabbard, director of the motor development lab at Texas
    A&M has done testing regarding limb laterality however not from a biomech.
    perspective, but in regard to influences and development of foot and hand
    preference. He sent me some interesting articles regarding dominance and non
    dominant theories.

    Carl Gabbard
    Department of Health & Kinesiology
    Texas A&M University
    College Station, TX 77843-4243
    (409) 845-1277
    ************************************************** **********************
    Saidon Amri
    Department of Physical Education & Exercise Science
    Michigan State University
    East Lansing, MI 48824

    I am also interested in finding the answers on your questions
    regarding laterality during normal gait. Currently, I am in the process of
    doing my Master's thesis ,title A Comparison of Bilateral Asymmetries in
    the Gait Patterns of Subjects With and Without Posterior Cruciate Ligament
    (PCL) injuries. From the literature, my understanding on laterality are as
    - Normal gait should exhibit a symmetrical (non-significant
    differences) gait pattern between the left and the right sides.
    - There are minor quantitative movement differences among
    people due to various distinctive ways in which people walk.
    - While each person is different, there are certain
    attributes of gait, in healthy subjects, that are quite consistent or
    consistent within a normal range.
    - In addition to comparing values and gait patterns between
    the left and the right sides, laterality should also be determined using a
    Symmetry Index.
    - There should be a range of asymmetries describing a normal
    gait pattern.
    - Normal gait asymmetries are variable specific, and it is
    not valid to use one criterion value to assess gait symmetry using
    several gait variables.

    I believe I need some more information , either supportive or
    contradictive to my understanding on laterality. I would be very glad if you
    could send me a list of literature concerning this matter. Your cooperation
    is very much appreciated.
    Thank you
    ************************************************** **********************
    James Steele writes

    We have been examining a large normal population and have found
    >(like other researchers) more than a few differences between values on left
    >and right side. There seems to be some disagreement in the literature as to
    >whether left and right side data should be combined or analyzed seperately.
    James Steele, Ph.D.,
    Dept of Archaeology,
    University of Southampton,
    Southampton SO17 1BJ,

    Telephone: (01703) 594198
    Fax: (01703) 593023
    ************************************************** *********************

    "Dr. Malcolm Ellis"

    Tel: +44 (0)113 2793 710
    Fax: +44 (0)113 2310 820

    I found that during some of my studies on gait, differences in leg length
    was a major contributor to variations in the gait patterns between left and
    right leg. As most people have some small differences in leg length, this
    may be a clue to the differences that we all see. I would be interested to
    hear what other say about this matter

    Best Regards,
    ************************************************** **********************

    I read your message with some interest. As a gait researcher, I was
    trained (for the purposes of 2-D kinematic analyses) to capture the right
    limb in motion and to make the assumption that the left limb is a mirror
    image of the right with the exception that the two are out of phase.

    More recent research efforts, however, have led me to adopt a new stance
    on the issue; that is, that there is every reason to believe that the
    assumption of bilateral symmetry is not necessarily correct. The
    literature on the topic is limited, but you may be interested in the
    following source. It is somewhat dated but it does address some of the
    issues that you raised.

    Matsusaka, N., Fujita, M., Hamamura, A., Norimatsu, T., &
    Suzuki, R. (1985). Relationship between right and left legs
    in human gait, from a viewpoint of balance control. In
    D.A. Winter et al. (Eds.), Biomechanics IX-A (pp. 427-430).
    Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics Publishers.

    I look forward to seeing a summary of the responses that you receive on
    this topic.

    Lori A. Livingston, PhD
    Associate Professor of Biomechanics
    Department of Physical Education
    Wilfrid Laurier University
    75 University Avenue W.
    Waterloo, ON N2L 3C5
    Telephone: (519) 884-0710, x4986
    FAX: (519) 884-8829
    ************************************************** **********************

    Thomas A. Ribaudo
    Assistant Director, Gait Laboratory
    Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital
    (617) 722-6260
    Fax (617) 720-6887