Does anyone know of equations of motion for the arm (either horizontal or
vertical plane) which include not only hand, forearm and upper arm segments
but also the contribution of shoulder protraction/retraction or upper
More specifically, I am interested in adding a fourth segment
(trunk/shoulder protraction-retraction) to established 3 segment models
(beyond simply accounting for linear acceleration of the shoulder).

Any assistance is much appreciated.
Thank you in advance.
Cole Galloway

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C.Galloway, PT
Dept Physiology/Physiological Sciences Program
University of Arizona 1501 North Campbell Ave., Room 4104 Tucson, AZ 85724
Ph: 520-626-7718 Fax: 520-626-2383 Email: