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Summary: Sensory Input for Locomotion

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  • Summary: Sensory Input for Locomotion

    Dear Biomech-ls,

    Here is a summary of the responses i received to my inquiry regarding:
    "Sensory Input for Locomotion". Thanks a lot to everybody who answered.

    Christian Calame:

    In our collection of treadmill papers we have several by Schillings, De
    Zee, Duysens from Univ. of Nijmegen (NL) who use obstacles and observe
    the stumbling. We also have a paper by Dingwell, Davis and Frazier who
    use a treadmill with ground reaction force feedback for amputees. There
    are a couple of papers by Dr. Dietz (now in Zürich) et al with their
    paraplegics. And then there are various abstracts of people who are
    using our Gaitway Instrumented Treadmill.

    Check out Gaitway on our web site if you are interested in ground
    reaction force measurement on a treadmill. Please contact us if you are
    interested in further information.

    Mit freundlichen Grüssen
    Mr. Christian Calame, Product Manager Biomechanics
    Kistler Instrumente AG Winterthur, P.O.Box 304,
    CH-8408 Winterthur, Switzerland
    Tel: +41 52 224 11 11, Fax: +41 52 224 14 14

    Chris Kirtley:

    Jim Nibblet:

    The vestibular system is SO inportant in so many things.
    Research that I'm working on involves the vestibular system as one
    rudiment of an overall system. For those who are incomplete
    it turns out that vestibular dysfunction is reversible. The trick is
    not to stress the patient by doing too much during the therapy. Too
    causes stress. Just enough to (gently) stimulate the vestibular
    is enough to get synaptogenesis going which leads, through
    neuroplasticity to a reversal of the symptom.

    For a quick overview of a few vestibular exercises known to work,
    see the exercises page on the website of the Handle Institute

    Paul Sweeney:

    Davids, K. and Myers, C. (1990): 'The role of tacit knowledge in human
    skill performance.', J Hum Movement Stud, vol. 19, pp. 273-288.

    Dimitrijevic, M.R., Gracanin, F., Prevec, T. and Trontelj, J. (1968):
    'Electronic Control of Paralysed Extremities', Biomed. Eng., vol. 3,
    pp. 8-19.

    Grillner, S. (1975): 'Locomotion in vertebrates: central mechanisms and
    reflex interaction', Physiol. Rev., vol. 55, pp. 247-304.

    Grillner, S. and Rossignol, S. (1978): 'On the initiation of the swing
    phase of locomotion in chronic spinal cats', Brain Res., vol. 146, pp.

    Levine, W.S. and Loeb G.E. (1992): "The neural control of movement",
    IEEE Control Systems Magazine, Vol. 12, No. 6, pp. 38-47.

    Muybridge, e. (1955): 'The Human Figure in Motion - 196 plates with over
    700 images from the Muybridge Collection', Intro. and Table of Contents
    by Robert Taft, Dover Publishing Company, New York.

    Shefchyk, S.J. and Jordan, L.M. (1985): 'Excitatory and inhibitory
    postsynaptic potentials in a-motorneurons produced during fictive
    locomotion by stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region', J.
    Neurophysiol., vol. 53, pp. 1345-1355.

    Tomovic, R., Anastasijevic, R., Vuco, J. and Tepavac, D. (1990): 'The
    study of locomotion by finite state models', Biol. Cybern., vol. 63,
    pp. 271-276.

    and the most informative of these, I found, were:

    Pearson, K.G. (1976): 'The control of walking', Sci. Amer., vol. 235,
    pp. 72-86.

    Prochazka, A.(1993).: 'Comparison of Natural and Artificial Control of
    Movement', IEEE Trans. On Rehab. Eng., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 7-17.

    Derek Kamper:

    Dr. Kuo has done a lot of modeling of balance and I think
    he has added sensory feedback to the model. Below is a
    citation of an experimental paper he just published regarding
    the effects of sensation on balance.
    Good luck!

    Exp Brain Res 1998 Sep;122(2):185-95

    Effect of altered sensory conditions on multivariate descriptors of
    human postural sway.

    Kuo AD, Speers RA, Peterka RJ, Horak FB

    Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, University
    Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109-2125,

    [Medline record in process]

    Multivariate descriptors of sway were used to test whether altered
    conditions result not only in changes in
    amount of sway but also in postural coordination. Eigenvalues and
    directions of eigenvectors of the covariance of
    shnk and hip angles were used as a set of multivariate descriptors.
    quantities were measured in 14 healthy
    adult subjects performing the Sensory Organization test, which disrupts
    visual and somatosensory information used
    for spatial orientation. Multivariate analysis of variance and
    analysis showed that resulting sway changes
    were at least bivariate in character, with visual and somatosensory
    conditions producing distinct changes in postural
    coordination. The most significant changes were found when somatosensory
    information was disrupted by
    sway-referencing of the support surface (P = 3.2 x 10(-10)). The
    covariance measurements showed that
    subjects not only swayed more but also used increased hip motion
    to the hip strategy. Disruption of
    vision, by either closing the eyes or sway-referencing the visual
    also resulted in altered sway (P = 1.7 x
    10(-10)), with proportionately more motion of the center of mass than
    platform sway-referencing. As shown by
    discriminant analysis, an optimal univariate measure could explain at
    90% of the behavior due to altered
    sensory conditions. The remaining 10%, while smaller, are highly
    significant changes in posture control that depend
    on sensory conditions. The results imply that normal postural
    of the trunk and legs requires both
    somatosensory and visual information and that each sensory modality
    makes a
    unique contribution to posture
    control. Descending postural commands are multivariate in nature, and
    motion at each joint is affected uniquely
    by input from multiple sensors.


    hear are some nice summaries dealing with sensory input for locomotion,
    which helped us to become clear with this interesting topic.
    We used further references dealing with more "practical" problems with
    neurological patients on a treadmill in :"Physiotherapie" (CH) (in
    1.) Dietz V: Human neuronal control of automatic functional movements:
    interaction between central programs and afferent input; Physiol Rev
    (United States) Jan 1992, 72(1) p33-69
    2.)Armstrong DM; The supraspinal control of mammalian
    locomotion. (J Physiol (Lond), 1988 Nov)
    3.)Massion J; Movement, posture and equilibrium: interaction and
    coordination. (Prog Neurobiol, 1992)
    Good luck for your work
    D. Marks, Dept. of Physiotherapy HUMAINE Klinik Zihlschlacht CH 8588

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