Udine - July 19 - 23, 1999
coordinated by S.C. Cowin
(The City University of New York, USA)


Bone mechanics is considered here to include the mechanical behavior of
whole bones as structural elements, the mechanical behavior of bone tissue
as a material, the response of bone cells to mechanical and electrokinetic
stimuli and the physiological significance of the mechanical behavior.
Specialists in orthopaedics, dentistry, biochemistry and molecular and
cellular biology as well as biomechanics are involved in bone cell and
tissue mechanics. This topic has only formalized into a coherent discipline
in the last twenty years. During this period the salient mechanical
properties of bone have been determined, but the salient mechanical
properties of bone cells are only now being studied.

Bone remodeling is the primary research area in bone mechanics. Bone
remodeling is a term used to describe the phenomenon of the adaptation of
bone tissue to the character of its customary load bearing. That is to
say, bone changes its shape, its apparent density, and its stiffness in
response to its environmental load. In engineering terminology, bone is an
optimum composite and the skeletal system is an optimal structure. The
cellular mechanisms that constitute the mechanosensory system in bone
tissue and drive the adaptive remodeling are unknown at the present time,
but there are several promising candidates for the mechanosensory system.

The subject of bone mechanics is basic to the design of orthopaedic
implanted prostheses such as artificial hips, knees, finger joints, etc.
The engineering design of these orthopaedic appliances is less than thirty
years old and still in a state of evolution. It is a major manufacturing

The goal of this course will be to review the entire area of bone cell and
tissue mechanics, with an emphasis on bone remodeling. Besides being
informative, it is hoped that the course will function as a forum for the
exchange of data, philosophy, and ideas across disciplinary divides and so
provide further stimulus for a comprehensive approach to the problems of
bone mechanics. We expect an audience as diverse in background as the
lecturers, that is to say spanning the spectrum from biologists,
veterinarians, orthopaedic surgeons and rheumatologists to structural and
biomedical engineers.


E. Burger - ACTA-Free University, The Netherland
7 lectures on:
1. Bone histology; 2. Bone cells: osteocytes, osteoblasts; 3. Bone cells:
osteoclasts; 4. Mechanotransduction, role of osteocytes; 5. Bone
development and repair; 6. Growth factors and bone regeneration; 7.
Wednesday Q&A (focus on mechanotransduction).

S.C. Cowin - The City University of New York, USA

7 lectures on:
1. Introduction; 2. Mechanical and microstructural properties of bone; 3.
Bone blood supply and bone hydraulics; 4. The mechanosensory system in
bone; 5. Concepts and misconceptions associated with bone stress
adaptation; 6. Integration of viewpoints on bone function and functioning;
7. Friday Q&A (focus on the entire workshop).

J.D. Currey - University of York, UK

7 lectures on: 1. Form-function relationships in whole bones; 2. Structure
property-function relationships in bone tissue; 3. Organic-mineral
interactions in bone mechanics; 4. Pre-yield and post-yield behavior in
bone; 5. Role of microdamage in the mechanical behavior of bone; 6.
Fatigue, damage and repair and age changes in bone; 7. Monday Q&A (focus on
biology and mechanics).

A. Goodship - Royal Veterinary College and Institute of Orthopaedics UCL, UK

7 lectures on:
1. Bone modeling and remodeling; 2. The dynamics of mechanically related
remodeling; 3. Functional adaptation in bone tissue; 4. Mechanically
related responses in bone cells; 5. Mechanically related responses in bone
cells (cont'd); 6. Practical applications, osteoporosis, implant design; 7.
Tuesday Q&A (focus on animal experiments).

R. Huiskes - University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands

7 lectures on:
1. Stress analysis of bones and implant structures; 2. Micro-structural FE
models : stresses and strains in trabeculae; 3. The mechanical optimality
of bone structures; 4. Mechanical effects on osteogenesis and morphogenesis
of bone; 5. Regulation models for strain-adaptive remodeling; 6. Validation
of bone remodeling theories; 7. Thursday Q&A (focus on computational



TIME Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
July 19 July 20 July 21 July 22 July 23

9,00 - 9,45 Registr. Goodship Currey Cowin Burger
9,45 - 10,30 Cowin Burger Huiskes Goodship Currey
11,00 - 11,45 Goodship Currey Cowin Burger Huiskes
11,45 - 12,30 Burger Huiskes Goodship Currey Cowin

14,30 - 15,15 Currey Cowin Burger Huiskes
15,15 - 16,00 Huiskes Goodship Currey Cowin
16,30 - 17,15 Cowin Burger Huiskes Goodship
17,15 - 18,00 Currey Goodship Burger Huiskes


Jee, W. S. S., Cell and Tissue Biology (Chapter 7), in A Textbook of
Histology, Weiss, L., ed, Urban and Schwarzenberg, Baltimore, 1988.

Cowin, S. C. (editor), Bone Mechanics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, l989.

Currey, J. D., The Mechanical Adaptations of Bones, Princeton University
Press, 1984.

Martin, R. B., and Burr, D. R., Structure, Function and Adaptation of
Compact Bone, Raven Press, New York, 1989.


The registration fee amounts to 1.200.000 Lire (800.000 Lire for
participants on regular staff of Universities and
Academies of Sciences).

Applicants should send their application form at the latest one month
before the beginning of the
course. The registration must be accompanied by a check, or a copy of the
receipt of the payment of the fee of 1.200.000
(800.000 Lire, resp.), or credit card data.

A limited number of participants from Universities and Academies who are
not supported by their own Institutions can be
offered board and/or lodging at the University Residence (or a middle class
hotel). For this they should apply to the
Secretariat of CISM by May 19, 1999 and enclose a curriculum and a letter
of recommendation by the Dean
confirming that the Institute has no funds for financing their
participation. Preference will be given to applicants coming
>from countries which have adhered to CISM and contribute to its operating

A list of hotels in Udine will be sent by CISM's Secretariat upon receipt
of the registration form, or upon request. A limited
number of single rooms are usually available at the University Residence at
the price of approx. 17 US dollars per person
per night. Those interested should apply promptly through CISM.


Udine - July 19 - 23, 1999

Family name:





Check of Lire: sent to CISM
(IVA, VAT included and excluded bank charges)

Payment has been made on CISM Bank Account N. 3000,
ROLO Banca 1473, Agenzia 2,
UDINE (ABI 3556, CAB 12303)

Credit card: Cartasi, Eurocard,Mastercard, Visa
(at registration)

Please indicate to whom the invoice should be addressed here
below. This name should also appear on all bank documents


VAT number or Fiscal Number / Part. IVA o Codice Fiscale
( Only for EC or Italian residents or foreigners with
permanent business activity in Italy):


CISM - International Centre for Mechanical Sciences
Palazzo del Torso, Piazza Garibaldi 18
33100 UDINE, Italy
Ph. +39 432 248511 (6 lines)
Fx. +39 432 248550

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