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Course on Bone Cell and Tissue Mechanics

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  • Course on Bone Cell and Tissue Mechanics

    Udine - July 19 - 23, 1999
    coordinated by S.C. Cowin
    (The City University of New York, USA)


    Bone mechanics is considered here to include the mechanical behavior of
    whole bones as structural elements, the mechanical behavior of bone tissue
    as a material, the response of bone cells to mechanical and electrokinetic
    stimuli and the physiological significance of the mechanical behavior.
    Specialists in orthopaedics, dentistry, biochemistry and molecular and
    cellular biology as well as biomechanics are involved in bone cell and
    tissue mechanics. This topic has only formalized into a coherent discipline
    in the last twenty years. During this period the salient mechanical
    properties of bone have been determined, but the salient mechanical
    properties of bone cells are only now being studied.

    Bone remodeling is the primary research area in bone mechanics. Bone
    remodeling is a term used to describe the phenomenon of the adaptation of
    bone tissue to the character of its customary load bearing. That is to
    say, bone changes its shape, its apparent density, and its stiffness in
    response to its environmental load. In engineering terminology, bone is an
    optimum composite and the skeletal system is an optimal structure. The
    cellular mechanisms that constitute the mechanosensory system in bone
    tissue and drive the adaptive remodeling are unknown at the present time,
    but there are several promising candidates for the mechanosensory system.

    The subject of bone mechanics is basic to the design of orthopaedic
    implanted prostheses such as artificial hips, knees, finger joints, etc.
    The engineering design of these orthopaedic appliances is less than thirty
    years old and still in a state of evolution. It is a major manufacturing

    The goal of this course will be to review the entire area of bone cell and
    tissue mechanics, with an emphasis on bone remodeling. Besides being
    informative, it is hoped that the course will function as a forum for the
    exchange of data, philosophy, and ideas across disciplinary divides and so
    provide further stimulus for a comprehensive approach to the problems of
    bone mechanics. We expect an audience as diverse in background as the
    lecturers, that is to say spanning the spectrum from biologists,
    veterinarians, orthopaedic surgeons and rheumatologists to structural and
    biomedical engineers.


    E. Burger - ACTA-Free University, The Netherland
    7 lectures on:
    1. Bone histology; 2. Bone cells: osteocytes, osteoblasts; 3. Bone cells:
    osteoclasts; 4. Mechanotransduction, role of osteocytes; 5. Bone
    development and repair; 6. Growth factors and bone regeneration; 7.
    Wednesday Q&A (focus on mechanotransduction).

    S.C. Cowin - The City University of New York, USA

    7 lectures on:
    1. Introduction; 2. Mechanical and microstructural properties of bone; 3.
    Bone blood supply and bone hydraulics; 4. The mechanosensory system in
    bone; 5. Concepts and misconceptions associated with bone stress
    adaptation; 6. Integration of viewpoints on bone function and functioning;
    7. Friday Q&A (focus on the entire workshop).

    J.D. Currey - University of York, UK

    7 lectures on: 1. Form-function relationships in whole bones; 2. Structure
    property-function relationships in bone tissue; 3. Organic-mineral
    interactions in bone mechanics; 4. Pre-yield and post-yield behavior in
    bone; 5. Role of microdamage in the mechanical behavior of bone; 6.
    Fatigue, damage and repair and age changes in bone; 7. Monday Q&A (focus on
    biology and mechanics).

    A. Goodship - Royal Veterinary College and Institute of Orthopaedics UCL, UK

    7 lectures on:
    1. Bone modeling and remodeling; 2. The dynamics of mechanically related
    remodeling; 3. Functional adaptation in bone tissue; 4. Mechanically
    related responses in bone cells; 5. Mechanically related responses in bone
    cells (cont'd); 6. Practical applications, osteoporosis, implant design; 7.
    Tuesday Q&A (focus on animal experiments).

    R. Huiskes - University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands

    7 lectures on:
    1. Stress analysis of bones and implant structures; 2. Micro-structural FE
    models : stresses and strains in trabeculae; 3. The mechanical optimality
    of bone structures; 4. Mechanical effects on osteogenesis and morphogenesis
    of bone; 5. Regulation models for strain-adaptive remodeling; 6. Validation
    of bone remodeling theories; 7. Thursday Q&A (focus on computational



    TIME Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
    July 19 July 20 July 21 July 22 July 23

    9,00 - 9,45 Registr. Goodship Currey Cowin Burger
    9,45 - 10,30 Cowin Burger Huiskes Goodship Currey
    11,00 - 11,45 Goodship Currey Cowin Burger Huiskes
    11,45 - 12,30 Burger Huiskes Goodship Currey Cowin

    14,30 - 15,15 Currey Cowin Burger Huiskes
    15,15 - 16,00 Huiskes Goodship Currey Cowin
    16,30 - 17,15 Cowin Burger Huiskes Goodship
    17,15 - 18,00 Currey Goodship Burger Huiskes


    Jee, W. S. S., Cell and Tissue Biology (Chapter 7), in A Textbook of
    Histology, Weiss, L., ed, Urban and Schwarzenberg, Baltimore, 1988.

    Cowin, S. C. (editor), Bone Mechanics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, l989.

    Currey, J. D., The Mechanical Adaptations of Bones, Princeton University
    Press, 1984.

    Martin, R. B., and Burr, D. R., Structure, Function and Adaptation of
    Compact Bone, Raven Press, New York, 1989.


    The registration fee amounts to 1.200.000 Lire (800.000 Lire for
    participants on regular staff of Universities and
    Academies of Sciences).

    Applicants should send their application form at the latest one month
    before the beginning of the
    course. The registration must be accompanied by a check, or a copy of the
    receipt of the payment of the fee of 1.200.000
    (800.000 Lire, resp.), or credit card data.

    A limited number of participants from Universities and Academies who are
    not supported by their own Institutions can be
    offered board and/or lodging at the University Residence (or a middle class
    hotel). For this they should apply to the
    Secretariat of CISM by May 19, 1999 and enclose a curriculum and a letter
    of recommendation by the Dean
    confirming that the Institute has no funds for financing their
    participation. Preference will be given to applicants coming
    >from countries which have adhered to CISM and contribute to its operating

    A list of hotels in Udine will be sent by CISM's Secretariat upon receipt
    of the registration form, or upon request. A limited
    number of single rooms are usually available at the University Residence at
    the price of approx. 17 US dollars per person
    per night. Those interested should apply promptly through CISM.


    Udine - July 19 - 23, 1999

    Family name:





    Check of Lire: sent to CISM
    (IVA, VAT included and excluded bank charges)

    Payment has been made on CISM Bank Account N. 3000,
    ROLO Banca 1473, Agenzia 2,
    UDINE (ABI 3556, CAB 12303)

    Credit card: Cartasi, Eurocard,Mastercard, Visa
    (at registration)

    Please indicate to whom the invoice should be addressed here
    below. This name should also appear on all bank documents


    VAT number or Fiscal Number / Part. IVA o Codice Fiscale
    ( Only for EC or Italian residents or foreigners with
    permanent business activity in Italy):


    CISM - International Centre for Mechanical Sciences
    Palazzo del Torso, Piazza Garibaldi 18
    33100 UDINE, Italy
    Ph. +39 432 248511 (6 lines)
    Fx. +39 432 248550

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