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Summary : Body position for off-road cycling

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  • Summary : Body position for off-road cycling

    Hello biomch-lers,
    I give back the summary of replies for my question on body position for
    off road cycling. Thanks to all who have tried to help me.
    Unfortunately, few responses concern directly off road and I have all
    ready done a bibliography for road cycling.
    But, if somebody want help on road cycling. Il will be a pleasure.
    Nicolas BELLUYE

    Ian Rogers :

    Broker J.P., R.J. 1994. Gregor, Mechanical energy management in
    cycling:source relations and energy expenditure. Medicine and Science in
    Sports andExercise. Vol. 26, No.1, pp 64 - 74

    Carnevale T.J., Gaesser G.A. 1991. Effects of pedalling speed on the
    power-duration relationship for high-intensity exercise. Med. Sci.
    SportsExerc. Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 242-246.

    Coyle E.F. Feltner M.E., et al Physiological and biomechanical factors
    associated with elite endurance cycling performance. Vol. 23, No.1, pp
    93 -107 1991

    Swain DP, 1993. The influence of body mass in endurance cycling. Med.
    Sci.Sports Exerc. Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 58-63.

    Swain D.P., Wilcox J.P.1992. Effect of cadence on the economy of uphill
    cycling. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. Vol. 24, No. 10, pp. 1123-1127.

    Too D. 1990. Biomechanics of cycling and factors affecting
    performance.Sports Medicine Vol. 10, No.5, pp 286 - 302

    Seifert J.G., Leuetkemeier M.J., Spencer M.K., Miller D., Burke E.R.
    1997.The effects of mountain bike suspension systems on energy
    expenditure,physical exertion, and time trial performance during
    mountain bicycling.
    Int. J. Sports Med. Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 197-200.

    Jason Leach :

    Unfortunately, I do not have any direct information for you. I do know
    that at the Velonews website (,
    they have a cycling science portion. It costs money to access info
    there though. I am a Masters Student in Biomechanics at the University
    of Windsor in Canada and am considering my thesis to deal with mountain
    biking but unsure as to what aspect as of yet. Try for sport discus.

    Michael Orendurff:
    There is no such literature for off-road bicycling to my knowledge.
    Cycling biomechaincs means pedaling biomechanics, and precious few
    papers have delt with body position even in road cycling. Here are a
    few references from my thesis on impact acceleration with rigid and
    suspension forks in mountain biking. I hope this gives you a starting
    point and perhaps something more recent is out there--try free medline
    on the web.

    Abrams, C. F & Sugg, C. W. (1969). Chain saw vibration, Isolation and
    transmission through the arm. Transactions
    of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 12, 423-425.

    Boning, D., Gonen, Y., & Maassen, N. (1984). Relationship between work
    load, pedal frequency, and physical fitness. International Journal of
    Sport Biomechanics, 5, 92-97.

    Bovenzi, M., Zadini, A., Franzinelli, A., & Borgogni, F. (1991).
    Occupational musculoskeletal disorders in the neck
    and upper limbs of forestry workers exposed to hand-arm vibration.
    Ergonomics, 34, 547-562.

    Brooke, J. D. & Davies, G. J. (1973). Comments on estimation of the
    energy expenditure of sport cycling.
    Ergonomics, 16, 237-238.

    Burke, E. R. (1980). Physiological characteristics of national and
    international competitive cyclists. Physician
    and Sportsmedicine, 8 78-84.

    Burke, E. R , Cerny, F., Costill, D., & Fink, W. (1977).
    Characteristics of skeletal muscle in competitive cyclists.
    Medicine and Science in Sports, 9, 109-112.

    Coast, J. R. & Welch, H. G. (1985). Linear increase in optimal pedal
    rate with increased power output in cycle
    ergometry. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 53, 339-342.

    Coast, J. R., Cox, H. R. & Welch, H, G. (1986). Optimal pedaling rate
    in prolonged bouts of cycle ergometry.
    Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, 18, 225-230.

    Coyle, E. F., Feltner, M. E., Kautz, S. A., Hamilton, M. T., Mountain,
    S. J., Baylor, A. M., Abraham, L. D., &
    Petrek, G.W. (1991). Physiological and biomechanical factors
    associated with elite endurance cycling
    performance. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, 23, 93-107.

    Coyle, E. F., Coggan, A. R., Hopper, M. K., & Walters, T. J. (1988).
    Determinants of endurance in well trained
    cyclists. Journal of Applied Physiology, 64, 2622-2630.

    Dal Monte, A., Leonardi, L. M., Menchinelli, C., and Marini, C.
    (1987). A new bicycle design based on
    biomechanics and advanced technology. International Journal of Sport
    Biomechanics, 3, 287-292.

    Dickenson, S. (1929). The efficiency of bicycle-pedaling, as affected
    by speed and load. Journal of Physiology
    (London), 67, 242-255

    Dill, D. B., Seed, J. C., Marzulli, F. N. (1954). Energy expenditure
    in bicycling riding. European Journal of
    Physiology, Occupational Physiology, 7, 320-324.

    Ericson, M. O. & Nissell, R. (1988). Efficiency of pedal forces during
    ergometer cycling. International Journal of
    Sports Medicine, 9, 118-122.

    Ericson, M. O., Nissell, R., Arborelius, U. P., & Ekholm, J. (1986).
    Muscular activity during ergometer cycling.
    Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitative Medicine, 17, 53-61.

    Espanoza, Z. (June, 1990) Suspension forks. Mountain Bike Action, 4(2),

    Faria, I., Dix, C., & Fraser, C. (1978). Effects of body position
    during cycling on heart rate, pulmonary
    ventilation, oxygen uptake and work output. Journal of Sports Medicine
    and Physical Fitness. 18(49),

    Gonzalez, H, & Hull, M. L. (1989). Multivariate optimization of
    cycling biomechanics. Journal of
    Biomechanics, 22, 1151-1161.

    Hagberg, J. M., Mullin, J. P., Bahrke, M., & Limburg, J. (1981).
    Physiological profiles and selected psychological
    characteristics of national class American cyclists. Journal of Sports
    Medicine, 19, 341-346.

    Hempstock, T. I., & O'Connor, D. E. (1978). Assessment of hand
    transmitted vibration. Annals of Occupational
    Hygiene, 21, 57-67.

    Hull, M. L. & Davis, R. R. (1981). Measurement of pedal loading in
    bicycling, 1. Instrumentation. Journal of
    Biomechanics, 14, 842-856

    Hull, M. L. & Gonzalez, H. (1988a). Bivariate optimization of pedaling
    rate and crank arm length in
    cycling. Journal of Biomechanics, 21, 839-849.

    Hull, M. L., Gonzalez, H. K., & Redfield, R. (1988b). Optimization of
    pedaling rate in cycling using a muscle
    stress-based objective function. International Journal of Sport
    Biomechanics, 4, 1-20.

    Hull, M. L., Kautz, S, & Beard, A. (1991). An angular velocity profile
    in cycling derived from mechanical energy
    analysis. Journal of Biomechanics, 24, 577-586.

    Hull, M. L., Beard, A. & Varma, H. (1990). Goniometric measurement of
    hip motion in cycling while standing.
    Journal of Biomechanics, 23, 687-703.

    International Organization for Standardization ISO 2631-1978. (1978).
    Guide for the Evaluation of Human
    Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration. Stockholm, International Organization
    for Standardization.

    International Organization for Standardization ISO 5349 (1980). Guide
    for the Measurement and Evaluation of Human Exposure to Vibration
    Transmitted to the Hand, Stockholm, International Organization for

    International Organization for Standardization ISO 5349 (1986).
    Mechanical Vibrations-Guidelines for the
    Measurement and the Assessment of Human Exposure to Hand-Transmitted
    Vibration. Stockholm, International
    Organization for Standardization.

    Jordan, L. & Merrill, E. G. (1979). Relative efficiency as a function
    of pedaling rate for racing cyclists.
    Journal of Physiology (London), 296, 49P-50P.

    Kuntslinger, U., Ludwig, H. G., & Stegeman, J. (1985). Force kinetics
    and oxygen consumption during bicycle
    ergometer work in racing cyclists and reference-group. European Journal
    of Applied Physiology, 54, 58-61.

    LaFortune, M. A., & Cavanagh, P. R. (1983). Effectiveness and
    efficiency during bicycle riding. In,
    BiomechanicsVIIIB, Matsui & Kobayashi (Eds.) Champaign, IL, Human
    Kinetics, 928-936.

    McCole, S. D., Claney, K., Conte, J-C., Anderson, R. & Hagberg, J. M.
    (1990). Energy expenditure during
    bicycling. Journal of Applied Physiology, 68, 748-753.

    McLean B. & LaFortune, M. A. (1988). Improving pedaling technique with
    "real-time" biomechanical feedback. EXCEL, 5, 15-18.

    Medbø, J. I. & Tabata, I. (1989). Relative importance of aerobic and
    anaerobic energy release during short-term
    exhaustive bicycle exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 67,

    Miller, T. A., Martin, P. E. & Wells, C. L. (1988). The effect of
    position and cadence on the biomechanical
    characteristics of hill climbing cyclists. Proceedings of the 12th
    Annual Meeting of the American Society of
    Biomechanics. 126-127, Champaign, IL.

    Mistrot, P., Donati, P., Galminche, J. P. and Florentin, D. (1990)
    Assessing the discomfort of whole-body multi-axix
    vibration: laboratory and field experiments. Ergonomics 33, 1523-1536.

    Munnings, F. (1991). Cyclist's palsy, making changes brings relief.
    The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 19(5),

    Nakamura, H. and Haverkamp, M. (1991) Effects of whole-body vertical
    shock-type vibration on human ability
    for fine motor control. Ergonomics 34, 1365-1376.

    Orendurff, M. S., Fujimoto, K., & Smith, G. A. (1994). The effect of
    mountain bike suspension fork stiffness on
    impact acceleration characteristics. Medicine and Science in Sport and
    Exercise, 26, S176.

    Plagenhoff, S., Evans, F. G., & Abdelnour, T. (1983). Anatomical data
    for analyzing human motion. Research
    Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 54, 169-178.

    Pugh, L. C. (1974). The relation of oxygen intake and speed in
    competition cycling and comparative observations
    on the bicycle ergometer. Journal of Physiology (London), 241, 795-808.

    Pyykko, I., Farkkila, M., Toivanen, J., Korhonen, O., & Hyvarinen, J.
    (1976). Transmission of vibration in the
    hand-arm system with special reference to changes in compression force
    and acceleration. Scandinavian Journal
    of Work, Environment and Health, 2, 87-95.

    Pyykko, I., Korhonen, O., Farkkila, M., Starck, J., Aatola, S. & Jantti,
    V. (1986). Vibration syndrome among Finnish workers, a follow-up from
    1972 to 1983. Scandinavian
    Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 12, 307-312.

    Redfield, R. & Hull, M. L. (1986). On the relationship between joint
    moments and pedaling rates at constant power
    in bicycling. Journal of Biomechanics, 19, 317-329.

    Report on bicycle sales. (1990). American Bicycle Manufacturers
    Association, West Palm Beach, FL.

    Reynolds, D. D. (1972). Dynamic response of the hand-arm system to a
    sinusoidal input. Journal of Sound and
    Vibration. 21, 339-353.

    Reynolds, D. D. (1977). Hand-arm vibration, a review of 3 years'
    research. In Proceedings of International
    Occupational Hand-arm Vibration Conference. (National Institute for
    Occupational Safety and Health, DHEW (NIOSH) Publication N0. 77-170)
    (Government Printing Office, Washington, DC) 99-128.

    Ritchie, A. (1975). King of the Road, an Illustrated History of
    Cycling. Berkeley. Ten Speed Press.

    Ryschon, T. W. & Stray-Gunderson, J. (1991). The effect of body
    position on the energy cost of cycling. Medicine
    and Science in Sports and Exercise, 23, 949-953.

    Schmidtke, H. (1984). Ergonomic Data for Equipment Design. New York,
    Plenum Press.

    Seabury, J. J., Adams, W. C. & Ramey, M. R. (1977). Influence of
    pedaling rate and power output on energy expenditure during bicycle
    ergometry. Ergonomics, 20, 499-519.

    Seifert, J. G., Leutkemeier, M. J., Spencer, M., Miller, D. & Burke, E.
    R. (1994). Physical and performance responses to cycling with
    suspension bicycles during mountain biking.
    Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, 26, S63.

    Shea, K. G., Shumsky, I. B., & Shea, O. F. (Sept. 1991). Shifting into
    wrist pain, DeQuervain's disease and off-road
    mountain biking. The Physician and Sportsmedicine. 19(9), 59-63.

    Stevenson, E. P. (1982). The High-Tech Bicycle. New York, Harper &

    Swain, D. P., Coast, P. S., Clifford, P. S., Milliken, M. C. &
    Stray-Gunderson, J. (1987). Estimation of energy
    expenditure of cyclists. Journal of Applied Physiology, 62, 668-672.

    Van Baak, M. A. & Binkhorst, R. A. (1981). Oxygen consumption during
    outdoor recreational cycling.
    Ergonomics, 24, 725-733.

    Whitt, F. R. (1971). A note on the estimation of energy expenditure of
    sporting cyclists. Ergonomics, 14, 419-423

    Widrick, J. J., Freedson, P. S., Hamil, J. (1992). Effect on internal
    work on the calculation of optimal pedaling
    rates. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, 24, 376-382.

    Winter, D. A. (1990). Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human
    Movement. 2nd Ed. New York, Wiley.

    Wooten, D. (1993). Personal communication.

    Yoshihuku, Y. & Herzog, W. (1990). Optimal design parameters of the
    bicycle-rider system for maximal muscle
    power output. Journal of Biomechanics, 23, 1069-1079.

    Brian R. Umberger :
    You might be interested in reading our recent article in Journal of
    Human Movement Studies, "Difference in power output during cycling at
    different seat tube angles", 35: 21-36 (1998). Although we manipulated
    hip angle (by changing seat tube angle), while holding trunk angle
    constant, and did not address comfort issues, you might still find the
    information useful. If you do not have access to the journal I can send
    you a reprint.

    tel;fax:+33 (0) 556846964
    tel;home:+33 (0) 556374067
    tel;work:+33 (0) 686828376
    adr:;;Laboratoire,Mécanique Physique, Université Bordeaux I, 351 cours de la Libération;Talence;;33405;FRANCE
    title:Engineer PhD & Biomechanical Consulting
    fn:Nicolas BELLUYE